I-metal

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Iqela lee-elements zekhemikhali elifumaneka kwi-periodic table libizwa zii-metals. Ezi  elements zidla ngokuba nezi mpawu zilandelayo: 

  1. Zibayindlela yokugqitha kombane nobushushu
  2. Zingenzeka lula.
  3. Ziyabengezela xa uzijongile.
  4. Izinga lokunyibilika kwazo liphezulu. 

Iimetals ezininzi zizii-solids ezikubushushu bendlu, kodwa oko akumelanga kuba njalo.  I-Mercury yona iyi-liquid. Ii-Alloys yimixube,   apho ubuncane inxalenye yaloo mxube uyi-metal. Imizekelo yee-metals yile:  i-aluminium, i-copper, i-iron, i-nkonkxa, igolide, i-lead, i-silivere, i-titanium, i-uranium, kunye ne-zinc. Ii-alloys ezaziwayo zibandakanya i-bronze kunye ne-steel.

Isifundo tudy ezimalunga nee-metals zibizwa ngokuba yi-metallurgy.

Iindlela ezifana ngayo ii-metals  (iimpawu zee- metals)[tshintsha | edit source]

Inkoliso yee-metals zomelele, ziyakhazimla, zinobunzima kwaye zinyibilika kuphela xa zithe zatshiswa ngobushushu obuphezulu kakhulu. Ii-lumps ze-metal zenza ingxolo efana nokubethwa kwentsimbi xa zithe zatshiswa ngengento etshisa kakhulu (zi-sonorous). Ubushushu kunye nombane    zihamba lula nge-metal (oko kuthetha okokuba zi-conductive). I-lump yemetal ingakhandwa ibe licwecwana (eliyi-malleable) okanye icudiswe ibe zingcingwana ezincinane  (eziyi-ductile). Imetal yomelele ayinakuqhekezwa phakathi (ine-tensile strength ephezulu) ingenakutynyuzwa (inamandla oxinzelelo oluphezulu. Ukuba utyhala umsingizana wentwana ende ye-metal, iyakugoba, ingophuki (iyi-elastic).

Akuzizo zonke ii-metals ezinezi mpawu.  I-Lead, umzekelo, ithambe kakhulu, kwaye ubushushu nombane azikwazi kugqitha kwi-iron njengoko zisenza kwi-copper.

Ukusetyenziswa kwee-metals[tshintsha | edit source]

Ibholorho ese-Russia yenziwa yi-metal, mhlawumbi i-iron okanye i-steel.

Ii-metals zibaluleke kakhulu ebantwini. Kwenziwa ngazo ii-tools kuba zisenokuba namandla kwaye kubelula nokuzibumba.   I-iron ne-steel bekusoloko kusenziwa ii-bholorho, izakhiwo, okanye iinqanawa.

Ezinye ii-metals kwakhiwa ngazo izinto ezinje ngee-nkonzo kuba zomelele kwaye azinakukhuka ngokukhawuleza. Umzekelo,  i-copper (emenyezelayo nebomvu ngombala), i-aluminium (emenyezelayo nemhlophe ngombala), igolide (eqanda ngombala nemenyezelayo), isilvere ne-nickel (nayo ikwamhlophe kwaye iyamenyezela) 

Ezinye ii-metals, ezifana ne-steel, zingenziwa zicweje kwaye zihlale zicwejile, ngoko ke kwakhiwa ngazo  ii-mela, amazembe okanye ii-razors.

Zinqabile ii-metals ezinexabiso eliphezulu, nezifana ne-golide, isilvere kwaye i-platinum kusoloko kusenziwa ngazo i-jewellery. Ii-metals kusoloko kusenziwa ngazo  amatyathanga nezi-screws. I-Pots kuphekwa  ngazo ingenziwa ngecopper, i-aluminium, i-steel okanye i-iron. I-lead inzima kakhulu kwaye ixinene kwaye isenokusetyenziswa njenge-ballast kwi-inqanawa ukuze inqande  zingabhukuqi, okanye ikhusele abantu kwi-ionizing radiation.

Ii-Alloys ze-metals[tshintsha | edit source]

Izinto ezininzi ezenziwe nee-metals zenziwe ngemixube ekukho kuyo imetal nokuba inye kwanezinye iimetals, okanye ngee-non-metals. Le mixube ibizwa ngokuba zii-alloys. Ii-alloys ezixhaphakileyo zezi: 

  • I-steel (i-iron ne-carbon) (i-carbon yi-non-metal)
  • I-Brass (i-copper ne-zinc)
  • I-Bronze (i-copper ne-tin)
  • I-Duralumin (i-aluminium ne-copper)
  • I-Gunmetal (i-copper, inkonkxa, ne-zinc)

Kwiminyaka engaphaya kwama-9000 abantu baqala ngokwenza izinto nge-metal, xa babefumananisa okokuba bangayifumana njani na i-copper kwi-ore yayo. Baza ke ngoko bafunda okokuba yenziwa njani na ialloy eyomeleleyo, ibronze, ngokugalela i-tin kwi-copper. Malunga neminyaka engama-3000 eyadlulayo, babhaqa i-iron. Bathi besagalela intwana ye-carbon kwi-iron, bafumanisa okokuba bangenza i-alloy ebalulekileyo - esi-steel. 

Ii-Metals kwi-chemistry[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwi-chemistry, i-metal ligama eliquka iqela amalungu eekhemikhali aneepmpawu ezithile. Kulula ukuba ii-atoms ze-metal zilahlekelwe yi-electron zitsho zibe zii-ions, okanye ii-cations. ngale ndlela, ii-metals azifani nezinye iintlobo ezimbini zee-elements -  ii-nonmetals kunye nee-metalloids.

Kwi-periodic table, singazoba umgca we-zigzag osuka kwi-element eyi-boron (uphawu lwayo ngu-B) ukuya kwi-element eyi-polonium (uphawu lwayo ngu-Po). Ii-elements ekunqumla kuzo lo mgca zii-metalloids. Ii-elements ezihamba ngaphezulu nangasekunene kwalo mgca zii- nonmetals. Zonke ke ezinye ezi ii-elements zizii-metals. 

Uninzi lweempawu zee-metals zenziwa kukuba ii-atoms ezikwi-metal azibambeleli zotshele ngamandla kwii-electrons zazo. I-atom nganye yahlulwe kwezinye ngenwebu esibaca ye-valence electrons. Nangona kunjalo, ezinye ii-metals zahlukile. Umzekelo yi-metal eyisodium. Ithambile, iyanyibilika xa izinga lobushushu liphantsi liphinde futhi libe-light, fidada ngaphezulu e-manzini. kodwa mabangakuzami abantu oku, kuba enye i-property ye-sodium iyadubula wxa ikhe yadibana namanzi.

Ii-metals ezininzi azenzi nto  ngokwekhemikhali, kwaye azishukumi lula.  (Ezinye ii-metals ziyatshitsha.) Ezo ke ii-metals zii-alkali ezifana ne-sodium (uphawu lwe-Na) kunye nee-alkaline earth metals ezifana ne-calcium (uphawu ngu-Ca).) Xa ii-metals zisenza intshukumo ethile, zisoloko ziyenza nge-oxygen. Ii-oxides zee-metals zi-basic. Ii-oxides ze-nonmetals zi-acidic. Uninzi lwee-elements kwi-periodic table zizii-metals.

Ii-Compounds, ezinee-metal atoms zidibana nezinye ii-atoms kutsho kwenzeke ii-molecules, zizezona zinto zixhaphakileyo emHlabeni. Umzekelo, ityuwa ile siyidlayo yi-compound ye-sodium.

Ii-metals kwimbali[tshintsha | edit source]

I-lump ye-copper engaxutywanga nefunyenwe njenge-copper yemveli

Ukusetyenziswa kwee-metals kuthiwa yinto eyenza ukuba abantu bohluke kwizilwanyana. phambi kokuba basebenzise ii-metals, abantu benza ii-tools zamatye, iinkuni, akunye namathambo ezilwanyana. Zizo ezi kungoku nje zibizwa ngokuba zii-Stone Age.

Akukho mntu waziyo okokuba yafunwa yaza yasetyenziswa nini na i-metal yokuqala. Kwakuyile yayibizwa ngokuba yi-cooper yemveli, nethi ifumaneke ngamanye amaxesha kwii-lumps ezinkulu emhlabeni.  Abantu baafunda ukutshinstha le nto ibe zii-ctools zecopper akwanezinye izinto, nangona, xa kuthethwa nge-metal, yona ithambe kakhulu. Xa yayinyibilikiswa emlilweni, abantu batsho bafunda ukwenza i-alloy ebizwa ngokuba yi-bronze, ethande ukuba lukhuni nokuba namandla kune-copper. Abantu babesenza iimela nezihlobo zemfazwe  nge-bronze. Kungoku nje kwimbali yolunti, emva kweminyaka emalunga nama-3300 BC isoloko ibizwa ngokuba yi-Bronze Age, oko kuthetha okokuba lixesha lezixhobo ze-bronze nezixhobo zemfazwe. 

Kumnyaka we-1200 BC abanye abantu baafunda ukwenza izixhobo ze-iron nezixhobo zemfazwe. Ezi ke zazomelele kunjalo nje zinamandla kune-bronze kwaye ke oku kwaba lithuba elifanelekileyo dvantage ikwimfazwe. Kungoku nje ixesha lezixhobo ze-iron nezixhobo zemfazwe libizwa ngokuba yi-Iron Age. Ii-metals bezisoloko zibaluleke kakhulu kwimbali yoluntu nakwi-mpucuko. I-iron ne-steel zazibalulekile ekwenzeni oomatshini. IGold ne-silivere wzazisetyenziswa njengemali ukuze kuvunyelwe abantu uba bashishine, oko kuthetha ukuthi, kutshintshiselwane ngempahla anangee-nkonzo zemisebenzi  kwimigama .emide.

Kwathi kuba ezi-metals bezisoloko zesebanza njengemali ixesha elide, abantu abaninzi baacinga okokuba ukufumana i-metal iindlela yokutyeba. Abamaninzi amaxesha apho igolide yathi yafumaneka baza abantu babasha ngokukhawuleza ngobuninzi babo bafudukela kwezo ndawo ifumaneka kuzo, umzekelo, kwincakam  nakumZantsi Melika emva komnyaka we-1500, nakwezinye iindawo emva komnyaka we-1800 (e-United States of America, e-Canada, e-Australia, e-New Zealand anaseMzantsi Afrika). ezi ziindawo ezisoloko zibizwa ngokuba zii-Gold Rushes.

Ii-Metals kwi-astronomy[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwi-astronomy, imetal yiyo nayiphi na i-element yekhemikhali ongaphandle kwe- hydrogen okanye i-helium. Unobangela woko kukuba ezi elements zimbini (nganye amaxesha kuba yi-lithium) zizo kuphela ezenza umququmblelo wee-nkwenkwezi. Esibhakabhakeni, i-telescope ingazibona iimpawu zee-metals ize ke emva i-astronomer yazi okokuba kukho ii-nkwenkwezi.

Amanye amaphepha anxulumene neli[tshintsha | edit source]