Ikhemikhali

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Ilungu lekhemikhali eliyi-Sulphur limile njenge-crystalline
I-Bromine ilelinye kumalungu amabini angamanzi, akwiqondo lama-25°C. Elesibini ilungu yi-Mercury[1]

Ilungu lekhemikhali liyi-substance enohlobo lwe-atom olunye kuphela. Ukuba i-substance ineentlobo zee-atoms ezimbini nangaphezulu,  yi-compound. I-element isenokuba yi-solid, yi-liquid okanye onye i-gas. Eyona particle incinane ye-element elolo hlobo yi-atom. Ii-atoms zenziwe ngee- protons, ii-neutrons, nangee-electrons.

Ilungu ngalinye linohlobo lwe-atom olunye kuphela.[2] Inani lee-protons ezikwi-atom libizwa ngokuba yi-atomic number okanye yinombolo ye-atom, umzekelo, zonke ii-atoms ezinee-protons ezi-6 zezelungu lekhemikhali eliyi-carbon, kwaye zonke ii-atoms ezinee-protons ezingama-92 zona zezelungu ekuthiwa yi-uranium.

Inombolo okanye iinani lee-protons kwi-nucleus lenza i-electric charge yayo. Oku ke kulungisa inani lee-electrons ukuze zibe kwimeko yazo yesiqhelo ek(ukumanyana) kwazo. Ii-electrons kwi-atomic orbitals yazo ziqinisekisa iintlobo-ntlobo zee-mpawu zekhemikhali.

Amalungu okanye ii-elements zisisiseko sazo zonke iintlobo zee-substances. Xa zithe zadityaniswa, zingenza izinto ekuthiwa zi- imolecules.

I-118 yeentlobo ngeentlobo zamalungu eekhemikhali  ziyaziwa kwi-khemistri yala maxesha siphila kuwo. Ngama-92 ala malungu afumanekayo kwindalo,[1] kwaye ezinye zingenziwa kuphela kwii-laboratories. Umzimba womntu wenziwe ngamalungu anga-26.[1] Ilungu lendalo nekulelokugqibela elathi labhaqwa laliyi-uranium, ngo-1789.[3][4] Uzenzele wokuqala yaba yi-Technetium, ngo-1937.

Amalungu ekhemikhali ahlala ebekwa ngokulandelelana kwawo kwi-periodic table. Apho athi adweliswe khona nalapho sixelelwa khona ngeenkcukacha ezenza zibe nonxulumano  namanye amalungu eekhemikhali. 

Isimboli yeekhemikhali[tshintsha | edit source]

Ilungu lekhemikhali ngalinye linikwa uphawu okanye isimboli eyodwa eyenza okokuba lahluke kuzo zonke ezinye iikhemikhali.   Impawu okanye iisimboli yekhemikhali zisetyenziswa emhlabeni jikelele. Oko kuthetha okokuba, akukhathaliseki nokokuba uthetha oluphi ulwimi, akukho kubhideka malunga nokokuba ithetha ukuthini na le nto  iluphawu okanye isimboli.[5] Iimpawu okanye isimboli yekhemikhali kumalungu ayo zivela kumagama azo angesiNgesi okanye isiLatini.  Umzekelo, i-carbon inophawu okanye isimboli yekhemikhali engu'C', kanti yona i-sodium inesimboli yekhemikhali engu'Na', ithiywa ngegama lesiLatini elithi natrium. I-Tungsten yona ibizwa ngokuba yi-'W' ithiywe ngegama lesiJamani elithi, wolfram.[3][5] I-'Au' yisimboli yegolide kwaye ivela kwigama lesiLatini elimele igolide nelaziwa ngokuba yi-aurum.[2][6] Enye isimboli evela kwisiLatini yi-'Ag'. Eli lilungu lekhemikhali eyi-silver kwaye livela kwisiLatini esingu-argentum.[6] Isimboli ye-Lead, yi-'Pb', ivela kwigama lesiLatini elithi plumbum[6] nakwigama lesiNgesi elithi plumber lakhutshwa kweli gama kuba imibhobho yayisayakwenziwa ngesiciko.[1] Ezinye iisimboli zeekhemikhali zaathiywa ngoosoziwayo, ezo ke zezifana ne-einsteinium, eyathiywa ngoAlbert Einstein.[3]

Ii-Compounds[tshintsha | edit source]

Ii-Elements okanye amalungu zingadibana (ngoku-reactha) ukuze zenze ii-pure compounds (ezifana namanzi, iityuwa, ii-oxides, kunye nee-organic compounds). Kwiimeko ezininzi, ezi compounds zine-fixed composition kwane-structure zazo nee- properties. Ii-properties ze-compound zingahluka kakhulu kwii-elements ezenziwe kuzo. I-Sodium y-imetal etshayo xa ithe yabekwa emanzini ane- chlorine iba yi-gas eyityhefu. xa zithe zadibana kwenzeka i-sodium chloride (ityuwa) into ke leyo engenabungozi kwaye yinto esenokusetyenziswa luluntu mhlawumbi ekutyeni.  

Imixube[tshintsha | edit source]

Ezinye ii-elements, ingakumbi ii-elements ze-metal ziyadibana zizodwa nangayiphi na i-proportion ukuze zenze izi-structures esintsha.  Ezo structures ezintsha azizo compounds. zibizwa ngokuba yimixube.

Ii-Isotopes[tshintsha | edit source]

Uninzi lwee-elements endalweni lwenziwe ngee-atoms ezinamanani ee-neutrons awohlukenenyo okanye angafaniyo. [7] I-isotope luhlobo lwe-element olunenani elithile lee-neutrons. Umzekelo, i-carbon inee-isotopes ezimbini ezingagungqiyo kwelo nani, ezi ke zii-isotopes ezizenzekelayo:  i-carbon-12 (inee-neutrons ezi-6) ne-carbon-13 (ii-neutrons ezisi-7). I-Carbon-14 (nee-neutrons ezisi-8) yi-radioactive isotope e-carbon ezenzekelayo. Kwi-element nganye, ngaphandle kwe-Ununoctium, zimbini ii-isotopes ziyaziwa. 

Ukwahlulwahlulwa kwee-elements[tshintsha | edit source]

Ii-elements zingahlulwahlulwa ngokwee- physical states. Kubushushu bendlu kwanoxinzelelo, uninzi lwee-elements kuzii-solids, zili-11 kuphela ezizii-gases ezimbini zibe zii-liquids.

Ii-elements zisenokwahlulwa-hlulwa zibe zii-metals nee-non-metals. Kukwakho nezinye ezininzi ii- metals kunee-non-metals.

Nangona kunjalo, ii-elements ezimbalwa phakathi kwezizii-metals nakwezo zizii-non-metals. Ezi elements zibizwa ngokuba zii-semimetals (okanye ii-metalloids).

Funda naga amanye amaphepha[tshintsha | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Ryan, Lawrie (2001).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Brand, Ian; Grime, Richard (2002).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Devlin, Jacinta; Cochrane, Helen (2005). "1" (in English).
  4. "Periodic Table: Uranium".
  5. 5.0 5.1 "BBC Bitesize: Science: Chemical and material behaviour: Atoms and elements: Chemical symbols".
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Kidd, D. A. (2008).
  7. Salters Advanced Chemistry: Chemical Ideas (Third ed.