I-carbon

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I-Carbon yikhemikhali ebaluleke kakhulu, enecsimboli yekhemikhali engu-C. Yonke  into ephilayo emHlabeni ivela kuyo. I-Carbon inenombolo ye-atomic mass engu-12 kwane-atomic number engu-6. Intsingiselo yayo i-nonmetal, into ethetha ukuthi ayiyo-metal.

Ibaluleke ngantoni?[tshintsha | edit source]

I-Carbon, i-hydrogen, i-nitrogen, i-oxygen, nezinye ii-elements ezifana ne-sulfur ne-phosphorus xa zizonke zizo ezenza i-life emhlabeni (jonga i-Organic chemistry noludwe lwee-elements ezibalulekileyo kwi-ologically). I-Carbon yenza inani  leorganic compounds elikhulu kakhulu kuba kuba iyakwazi ukwenza unxulumano olumandla nezinye ii-elements. ngenxa yesixa se-carbon esikwizinto eziphefumlayo, zonke ke ngoko zithathwa njengezinto ezibomi bazo busekwe kwi-carbon.  Kananjalo, i-carbon atom nganye iyakwazi ukwenza ii-covalent bonds ezine. Ii-carbon  atoms ezininzi zixhumana nee-hydrogen atoms ukuze zenze i-plastic. Kananjalo, i-Carbon kukuphela kwe-element engenza into efana netyathanga lee-molecules elide. Xa i-iron ithe yatshiswa ne-carbon, kwenzeka  i-steel esomeleleyo.

I-Etymology- Imvelaphi yegama[tshintsha | edit source]

Igama le-carbon livela kwisiLatin kwigama elithi carbo, gama elo lithetha ukuthi charcoal. Kwiilwimi ngeelwimi amagama athi carbon,  amalatye kunye ne-charcoal azizithetha nto nye.

Iintlobo ze-carbon[tshintsha | edit source]

Ngokwendalo i-carbon ifumaneka ngeendlela ezintathu ezibizwa ngokuba  zii-allotropes: i-diamond, i-graphite, kunye ne-fullerenes. I-Graphite, inodongwe, ifumaneka kwii-pensile zokubhala. Ithambe kakhulu.  Ii-carbon atoms zenza izazinge kwalapha kuzo, ezi zazinge zibelekene enye esinye siphezu kwesinye kwaye zikekela lula.   Ii-dayimani zezona mineral.zendalo eziqine kakhulu. I-Fullerenes zii-carbon ezikumila  okwe"bhola yesoka". Ziyathandwa kakhulu kwi-science. I-allotrope okanye kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo emile ngayo i-carbon kukho le inomahluko, ime okomcu ebizwa ngokuba yi-carbon nanotube. Ii-Carbon nanotubes zomelele kakhulu, ngoko ke zinokusetyenziswa kwi-armor. Ii-Nanotubes zingabaluleka kwi-nanotechnology. Zizizigidi ezili-10 ezaziwa ngokuba zii-carbon compounds.

Ezinye izakhiwo ze-carbon: a) idayimani; b) i-graphite; c) i-lonsdaleite; d-f) i-fullerenes (C60, C540, C70); g) i-amorphous carbon; h) i-carbon nanotube.

IKhemestri ye-carbon [tshintsha | edit source]

Lonke uhlobo lweKhemestri, lwe-organic Khemestri, lumalunga ne-carbon kunye nee-compounds zayo.  I-Carbon yenza iintlobo ezininzi zee-compounds. I-Hydrocarbons zii-molecules ezine-carbon kunye ne-hydrogen. I-Methane, i-Propane, nezinye iintlobo ze-fuels okanye zamafutha azii-hydrocarbons. Uninzi lwezinto ezisetyenziswa ngabantu mihla le zizii-organic compounds.

I-Radiocarbon dating[tshintsha | edit source]

I-radioactive isotope ye-carbon, i-carbon-14, isenokusetyenziswa ukuzama ukubona okokuba ingaba zindala kangakanani na ezinye ii-objects okanye izinto okanye kusetyenziswe yona ukujonga okokuba ife nini na into. Ukuba nje into iphezu komhlaba ikwathatha i-carbon, isixa se-carbon-14 esishiyekayo siyafana. Xa i-object okanye into iyeka ukuthatha i-carbon, isixa se-carbon-14 siyehla. Kuba i-halfu-yobomi (how long it takes for half of a radioactive isotope to go away) be-carbon 14 ingama-5730 years,[1] ii-scientists zingabona okokuba ingaba into leyo indala kangakanani na ngokuthi zibone okokuba ingakanani na i-carbon 14 eshiyekileyo. 

Ifumaneka phi i-carbon?[tshintsha | edit source]

I-Carbon ifumaneka kwiindawo ezininzi apha emhlabeni. Yaqala yenziwa kwiinkwenkwezi zakudala. I-Carbon yi-element yesine ukuxhaphaka elangeni. [1] Phantse yonke i-atmosphere ye-Mars iyi-Carbon dioxide.[2]

I-Carbon ibalulekile emzimbeni womntu kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo, kwaye iyi-element yesibini exhaphakileyo emzimbeni womntu, nge-23% yabo bonke ubunzima bomntu.[1] Ikwa sesona sitshixo see-molecules kwizinto ezinobomi   (ii-molecules ezisebenza kwizinto eziphilayo).

Uninzi lwe-carbon lufumaneka emHlabeni ngamalahle. I-Graphite yona ifumaneka kwiindawo ezomileyo (ezifana kanye nentlango), eziquka i-Sri Lanka, i-Madagascar, kwakunye ne-Russia. Idayimani inqabile kwaye ifumaneka kakhulu e-Africa. I-Carbon ikwafumaneka kwezinye ii-meteorites.

Amaphepha azalana nala[tshintsha | edit source]

  • Uludwe lwee-elements ezixhaphakileyo

Jonga apha[tshintsha | edit source]