IKhemistri

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Ikhemestri kukufunda nzulu ngee-chemical elements nangomdibaniso wazo ekuthiwa zii-chemical compounds.

Ikhemestri lisebe elikwaphuma kwinzululwazi esebenza ngee-chemical elements nangee-compounds, ikwabonakalisa nendlela ezisebenza ngayo ezi zinto xa zidibene. Sisifundo ngezinto ezthile ezenza imizamba yethu ngangazo zonke izinto ezisingqongileyo nezilapha emhlabeni.

imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

Phambi komnyaka we-1600, abantu baafunda ngezinto ukuze bakwazi ukuqonda okokuba zenziwa njani okanye zenzeka njani izinto ezinjengokujika i-lead ibe yigolide, kodwa akuzange kude kubekho mntu ukwaziyo ukukwenza oko. Kwaza ke ngoko kwabizwa ngokuba yi-alchemy. Nangona kunjalo, Ii-Alchemists (abantu abenza i-alchemy) bafumanisa okokuba kukho izinto ezibalulekileyo. Ezo zinto yi-Sulphuric acid kune ne-nitric acid izinto ezimbini abathi bazibhaqa. Zazimbalwa kakhulu ii-elements ezazisaziwa. Ezinye zazo zii-mercury, isilivere, igolide, ne-carbon.

Ikhemistri iqale njengenzululwazi ngeminyaka yee-1600s. Kungoko kanye ke apho bafumanisa ezona nto zakhe zalula neziqhelekileyo ekwenziwa ngazo zonke ezinye izinto. Ezi zinto ke zibizwa ngokuba zii-elements. Enye into abathi bayifunda yeyokokuba igolide ne-lead zii-elements ezahlukeneyo, ngoko ke awunakuzika nge-chemical reaction enye ibe yenye kuzo. I-element yokuqala eyabhaqwa emva komnyaka we-1600 yi-phosphorus, into nje engaqhelekanga eqinileyo nebengezelayo.

Ii-elements zaya zibhaqwa ngokubhaqwa ngokukhawuleza. Abantu bawahlula umoya waba ziintlobo-ntlobo baza bazahlula ii-noble gases kuwo. Kananjalo baaphonononga ii-minerals ezikhethekileyo nezibalulekileyo kumgodi wezimbiwa eSweden ukuze bafumane ii-rare earth metals. I-Radioactivity nayo yafumaneka. Kunamhlanje nje osokhemisti basafumene ii-elements ezahlukeneyo ezili-118. Ezinye zazo zixhaphakile, njenge-oxygen. Ezinye zinqabile kwaye ziphakamile ngexabiso, njengeplatinum. Ezinye azinakufumaneka apha emhlabeni, zingasuke zenziwe kwii-labs, njenge-rutherfordium.

Okoko kwange-1920s, ukwanda kolwazi nge-physics kwazitshintsha ii-theories zoosohhemist' ngokubhekiselele kwii-chemical reactions. ngeekhompyutha nje ezincinane nezikhawulezisayo, oosokhemisti bathi benza izixhobo ezikumgangatho ongentla ukuze ikwazi ukuphicotha izinto. Ezi zixhobo zazithunyelelwe ukuba zikwazi ukufunda nzulu iikhemicals ezikwiMars. Amapolisa akwasebenzisa ezi zixhobo ukuphanda nzulu ngobungqina obuvela kulwaphulo mthetho.

Iintlobo-ntlobo zekhemistri[tshintsha | edit source]

Ziliqela iintlobo zekhemistri. I-Analytical khemistri iqwalasela ezo chemicals zikwizinto. Umzekelo, xa ujonga okokuba ingaba ingakanani na i-arsenic esekutyeni. I-Organic khemistri iqwalasela izinto ezine-carbon kuzo. Umzekelo, ukwenza i-acetylene. I-Inorganic khemistri ijonge kwizinto ezingena-carbon kuzo. Umzekelo omnye kukwenza i-integrated circuit.

Indawo inkulu kwikhemistri yi-polymer khemistri. Le ke ijongana nee-plastics. Umzekelo omnye kukwenza i-nylon. kuba ii-plastics zenziwe ngee-carbon, i-polymer khemistri yinxalenye ye-organic chemistry. Esinye isifundo sese-biochemistry. esi sifundo siqwalasela ikhemistri yezinto ezinobomi. Umzekelo ngowaxa unokubona okokuba i-arsenic iyityhefu njani ebantwini. I-Biochemistry nayo ikwayinxalenye ye-organic khemistri. akho namanye amasebe amaninzi e-khemistri.

Isigama sakwakhemistri[tshintsha | edit source]

Isigama ekwakhelwa kuso[tshintsha | edit source]

Eyona nto yakhelwa kuyo nesisiseko se-element ibizwa ngokuba yi-atom. I-atom sisiseko sokwakhela nesisesona sakhe sasincinane kangangokuba xa ufuna ukuyibona ungayisika i-element ungakhange ude ube uyayicukuceza (uyijike ibe yi-element ekhaphukhaphu, umzekelo ngenuclear fission okanye ngeradioactive decay). I-chemical compound yi-substance eyenziwe ngee-elements ezimbini nangaphezulu. Kwi-compound, ii-atoms ezimbini nangaphezulu zithi zimanyane zenze i-molecule. Intlantsana yothulu okanye intwana yeqabaza lento engamanzi eli libonwa ngamehlo lenziwe nezigidi ngezigidi okanye ngezigidigidi zezi molecules. Imixube ziisubstances apho ii-chemicals are zixutywe khona kodwa zibe zingenantshukumo ziyenzayo okanye ibonakalayo. Umzekelo ngowaxa kudityaniswa isanti netyuwa. Oku kunokujikwa kwakhona kwenziwe ityuwa nesanti ngokwahlukana kwazo. Ii-Chemical compounds zitshintshwa yi-chemical reaction. Umzekelo ingakukutshisa i-sodium bicarbonate, i-baking powder le siyaziyo. kugalelwa amanzi, i-carbon dioxide, kunye nesodium carbonate. Lo mxube awunakujikwa okanye ezi zinto azinakwahlukaniswa.

I-Mole[tshintsha | edit source]

I-mole sisixa esikhulu kakhulu see-atoms (602,214,150,000,000,000,000,000 atoms). Ubunzima be-atom ye-element bungasetyenziswa ukujonga okokuba zingakanani na ii-elements ezenza i-mole. Umzekelo, ubunzima be-atom bumalunga nama-63.55. Oko kuthetha okokuba malunga nama 63.55 ee-grams ze-copper metal zine-mole yee-atoms. Ubunzima be-chlorine bumalunga nama-35.45. Oko kuthetha okokuba ama-35.45 ee-grams ze-chlorine ane-mole yee-atoms kuzo.

Kananjalo, Ii-Moles zingasetyenziselwa ukujonga okokuba zingaphi na ii-molecules kwii-chemical compounds. I-Copper(II) chloride ingumzekelo. i-CuCl2 yi-chemical formula yayo. inye i-copper atom (63.55) zimbini zona ii-chlorine atoms (35.45 · 2 = 70.90). Dibanisa bonke ubunzima be-molar obukwii-elements zidibene kunye nobunzima be-molar be-chemical compound buya busanda. (63.55 + 70.90 = 134.45) Oko kuthatha ukuthi ngee-grams ezingama-134.45 ze-copper(II) chloride, kukho i-mole enye yee-molecules ze-copper(II) chloride. Eli gama lisetyenziswa xa kubalwa okokuba zingaphi na ii-chemicals ezifuneka kwi-chemical reaction xa kungekho ntshukumo reaction (ii-chemicals ezi-reacted) ishiyekileyo. Ukuba kusetyenziswe i-reactant eninzi, kuzakuba ii-reactants ezishiyekileyo kwi-chemical reaction.

Ii-Acids nee-bases[tshintsha | edit source]

Ii-Acids nee-bases ziichemicals ezixhaphakileyo. Ii-Acids zikhupha H+ i-ions xa zisemanzini, zikhuphe nee-bases OH ions xa zisemanzini. Ii-Acids zinga-react with bases. The H+ ion is taken from the acid by the base. This makes water, H2O. A salt is also made when an acid and a base react together. An example would be reacting hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Hydrochloric acid releases H+ and Cl- ions in water. The base releases Na+ and OH- ions. The H+ and the OH- react to make water. There is a solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) left. Sodium chloride is a salt.

Umsebenzi obalulekileyo[tshintsha | edit source]

Ikhemistri ibaluleke kakhulu kwintlalo yemihla ngemihla kwaye yenza isiseko samasebe amaninzi enzululwazi. Ii-objects ezininzi zenziwe zii-chemists (abantu abangoosoKhemistri). Oosokhemistri basebenza ngokungagungqiyo bezama ukufumana ii-substances ezintsha nezibalulekileyo. Oosokhemistri benza amachiza kunye nezinye izinto ezifana nee-paints esizisebenzisa yonke imihla.


EKhemistrini ngamachiza ethi yenziwe ngokungahoywa okanye ngocwangco injongo ikuku lolonga umzimba nokunika ulonwabo kwabo babandakanyekayo. Ezemidlalo zisenokunzwelwa ukuphiswano, apho lowo uphumeleleyo athi abonakale ngomvuzo lento iye idinge ubuchwepheshe ingakumbimbi kumabuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhulu ngamakhulu,kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxes yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhulu ngamakhulu,kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idladlalo ziquka yonke into esebenzisa amandla ethi yenziwe ngokungahoywa okanye ngocwangco injongo ikuku lolonga umzimba nokunika ulonwabo kwabo babandakanyekayo. Ezemidlalo zisenokunzwelwa ukuphiswano, apho lowo uphumeleleyo athi abonakale ngomvuzo lento iye idinge ubuchwepheshe ingakumbimbi kumabuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemilwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhuanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhulu ngamakhulu,kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.

Eminye engasebenzisi mandla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo ngamanbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhulu ngamakhulu,kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingadlalo ziquka yonke into esebenzisa amandla ethi yenziwe ngokungahoywa okanye ngocwangco injongo ikuku lolonga umzimba nokunika ulonwabo kwabo babandakanyekayo. Ezemidlalo zisenokunzwelwa ukuphiswano, apho lowo uphumeleleyo athi abonakale ngomvuzo lento iye idinge ubuchwepheshe ingakumbimbi kumabuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.

Iindidi zemimakhulu ngamakhulu,kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxes yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhulu ngamakhulu, kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye, benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni. Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nbanga aphezulu.Iindidi zemidlalo ekhoyo ingamakhulu ngamakhulu,kuquka naleyo idlalwa ngabantu nganye nganye, ukuya kutsho kuleyo idlalwa ngamakhulu abantu ngaxeshanye,benagamaqela okanye bezimele ngenqayi elangeni.Eminye engasebenzisi mangla enjenge midlalo yebhodi kunye neenkasi nayo nye amaxhesha kuthiwa zezemidlalo,kodwa imidlalo yaziwa ngokusebenzisa amandla nangokubuchwepheshe bomzimba.

Imidlalo ilzeni bafunda khemikal.