I-Molecule

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Le yi-molecule yeswekile  Ii-atoms zeCarbon zimbala uluhlaza okwesibhaka-bhaka,  ii-atoms ze-oxygen (umongo-moya) zona zenziwe zabomvu, zaze eze-hydrogen zenziwa zamhlophe ukuze ubonakale umahluko. Enyanisweni kona ii-atoms azinambala.  

I-molecule yintwana encinane eyi-chemical enokufumaneka. Ukuba i-molecule le ibinokucukucezwa ngaphezu kokuba incinane kangako ibezizicukwana, ibizakuba yenye into eyahlukileyo.  

Ii-molecules zenziwe ngee-atoms ezithi zincamathelane zitsho zimile ngandlela ithile. Akuyiyo yonke imixube yee-atoms eqhelekileyo; ii-atoms zithanda ukumila ngohlobo oluthile, kodwa akunjalo kwezinye ii-atoms.  Kananjalo, zithanda uhlobo lwezicwagciso oluthile. Umzekelo, ii-atoms ze-oxygen (engumongo-moya ngesiXhosa) iyakusoloko inee-bonds ezimbini nezinye ii-atoms,  kanti zona ii-atoms ze-carbon ziyakusoloko zinee-bonds ezine nezinye ii-atoms, kanti nee-atoms ze-nitrogen ziyakusoloko zinee-bonds ezintathu nezinye ii-atoms. 

Kwii-gases ezifana nomoya, ii-molecules ziyazibhabhela nje.  Kanti ke kwizinto ezilngamanzi lezifana noqobo lwamanzi, ii-molecules ziqumbana ndawonye kodwa ke zisenokwenza intshukumo.  Kwizinto ezi-solids njengeswekile, ii-molecules zingasuke zi-ngcangcazele. Kukwakho nenye imo yento eyaziwa ngokuba yi-plasma apho ii-molecules zibhabha zijikeleze ngokukhawuleza ngokungathi ziphambene kunaxa zisemoyeni. nge-molecular formula, ungawabhala onke amanani ee-atoms ezikwi- molecule. Umzekelo, i-molecular formula ye-glucose ithi-C6H12O6. Oko kuthetha ukuba i-molecule enye ye-glucose yenziwe zii-atoms ze-carbon atoms ezintandathu, zii-hydrogen atoms ezilishumi elinambini kwanee-oxygen atoms ezintandathu. 

Uncamathelwano[tshintsha | edit source]

Ukuze ikwazi ukubakho i-molecule, ii-atoms kufuneka zincamathelane.  oku ke kwenzeka xa ii-atoms ezimbini zisabelana ngee-electrons. Endaweni yokujikelezisa le atom inye kuphela, i-electron ngoku ijikeleza zibe mbini. oku ke kubizwa ngokuba luncamathelwano. Ii-electrons ekwabelwana ngazo zibizwa ngokuba zii-'bonds'. Ngamany'amaxesha, ziba mbini nangaphezulu ii-electrons ekwabelwana ngazo. Xa zisanda ii-electrons ekwabelwane ngazo, i-bond nayo iya isomelela kwaye kungona ukuncamathelana kwee-atoms kusiya kusomelela. 

Ii-bonds zingaqhekezwa zohlukaniswe. Kuba ke inkoliso yee-bonds ifuna amandla ukuze zenzeke, zikwakhupha amandla xa zophuliwe. Kodwa phambi kokuba uninzi lwee-bonds luqhekeke, kufuneka zitshiswe ii-molecules.  Ii-atoms ziqale zishukume, zize zithi zakushukuma kakhulu, yophuke i-bond.  Ii-Molecules ezifuna amandla anganeno ukuze zikwazi ukuqhekeza kunalawo ziwafuna xa sele ziqhekekile zibizwa ngokuba zii-fuels. Umzekelo, ikhandlela lingabekwa phaya kungabikho nto yenzekayo. Kodwa xa uqhwitha ngematshisi ulilayite, liyakuvutha ixesha elide. Imatshisi izisa amandla ukuze iqhekeze ii-bond zokuqala, ezikhulula amandla awoneleyo ukuze ziqhekeze ii-bonds ezingaphantsi kuzo, de libe ikhandlela livuthe laphela. 


Ezinye ii-websites[tshintsha | edit source]