I-substance

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I-Substance [sub'-stuns] yinto eyenziwe ngenye into ebonakala ngamehlo, okanye yi-matter, yento ethile ekwenziwe ngayo loo nto yenziweyo. Ii-Substances zizinto eziphatheka ngesandla nezibonakala ngamehlo, okanye kusenokwenziwa umlinganiselo wazo. Zenziwe ngamalungu ee-elements amabini nangaphezulu. I-Iron, i-aluminium, amanzi kunye nomoya yimizekelo yee-substances.

amanzi aphuma engumophu aphinde aphume eluqobo lwamanzi ziindlela ezimbini ezohlukeneyo ze-chemical substance enye, engamanzi.

ingxaki zokuchaza igama elithi into okanye 'substance'[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

eyona ngxaki inkulu ekufumaneni eyona nkcazo iyiyi malunga nokokuba iyintoni na substance yeyokokuba, ukuba ngaba, umzekelo, asithatheli ngqalelo ihlabathi (eliyi-cosmos) kuphela, izinto eziphilayo nezingaphiliyo, kananjalo yonke into gabalala, kuyakuvela umbuzo othi, "yintoni eyona yona iluphawu lokwenene nesekelwe kuyo le nto kuthiwa y'into', nekuyinto eyakuba nazo zonke izinto ezikwi-(matter), ingqondo, iindlela zokuva, i-space, umphefumlo, njalo njalo).

Imbali nemvelaphi yegama elithi substance[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Igama lesiLatini elithi substantia - linguqulelo yegama lesiGrike elithi essence (ousia), kwaye ngesiLatini lichaza umdla wokusebenzisa igama elithi essentia. KwiFilosofi yamandulo, igama elithi substance lithathwa njengegama elibhekisa kwindawo ekufumaneka kuyo izinto zendalo,isiseko sokuqala sayo yonke into (umzekelo, "ngamanzi" eThales, ngumlilo we-Heraclitus).

Kungoku nje, igama lee-substance lithathwa njengegama kwaye ligcwele wonke umhlaa. umbono wokuqala unxulumene nolwazi nge-substance oluvela nkokwe-ontoloji, iintsika zolu lwazi ngoo- (Francis Bacon, Benedict Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz). Elona candelo lemetaphysics kwi-substance yefilosofi yaziwa ngokuba yileyo inoThixo nendalo kwaye ithathwa nje ngezidalileyo (i-Latin causa sui). Ezona mpawu ze-substance zivela ku-Benedict Spinoza kwaye ziyacinga ziphinde zistretch-e. Ngokwe-analogy, ngefilosofi ye-substance ka-Benedict Spinoza ibonwa ngokwesigama sika-René Descartes no-Leibniz. I-substance yokuqala kukudibana kwento leyo yenzayo (i-subject) kunye naloo kwenziwa kuyo into (i-object), eyesibini - ii-toms ezifanayo zizinto nje ezingasanwabulukiyo, kodwa zifumana iimpawu eziziiaspirations (Fr. appetition) kunye no-kwanda.Siyabulela, i-substance ye-Leibniz iqala ukunxulumana ne-matter.

Inqaku lesibini ngokumalunga nombono onge-substance - yindlela e-epistemological eliqondwa ngayo eli gama lithi substance, iizinto elinokukwazi ukuzisingatha kwakunye nemfuneko yolwazi ngobunzululwazi, (uJohn Locke, David Hume). U-Immanuel Kant ukholelwa kwinto yokokuba umthetho naphantsi kwaluphi na utshintsho oluthi lwenzeke kwinto yesiganeko eso kwaye nenani lezinto elithi lizigcine kulo ngokwendalo ziyinto efanayo, zingahlonyelwa k"mava afanayo." U-Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel uyichaza i-substance njengesidima sotshintsho, ukuguquka kwezinto, njengolona "tshintsho lukhulu xa kusiya kukhula umnqweno." Ngokuka-Arthur Schopenhauer i-substance - i-matter ngokukaDavid Hume - imbali engeyiyo inyaniso, the izinto ezibekho ngaxesha nye.

Amanye amaphepha azalana neli[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]