Ikhompyutha

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Umzobo wanamhlanje oqhelekileyo wekhompyutha yedektop.

Ikhompyutha ngu-matshini (ubukhulu becala uhamba ngombane) okwaziyo ukuthatha ulwazi (ngamanye amagama i-input), ukwenza umsebenzi othile okanye ukwenza utshintsho kolo lwazi lukhoyo ngelo xesha (oku kubizwa ngokuba yi-process), ukuze kudidiyelwe ulwazi olutsha olubizwa ngokuba yi-output). Iikhompyutha zibekho kakhulu kwimbali yoluntu. Imizekelo yeekhompyutha zamandulo zii-astrolabe kunye nee-abacus. Mine imigaqo yokusebenza kwekhompyutha, yile: i-inputting, kukungeniswa kolwazi kwikhompyutha; i-outputting, ukugcinwa nokusetyenzwa kolwazi olungenisiweyo. Zizo zone ke iindlela zokunceda ukuba isebenze ikhompyutha.

Iikhompyutha zangoku zahluke kakhulu kwiikhompyutha zamandulo. Ezi zikhoyo ziimatshini ezisebenzisa amandla ombane ngakumbi. Kangangakuba ziyakwazi ukwenza izigidi-gidi zokubala ngomzuzwana ngamnye. Uninzi lwabantu lusebenzisa i-personal computer emakhayeni abo okanye kwiindawo abasebenza kuzo. Iikhompyutha zibaluleke kakhulu kwiintlobo-ntlobo zemisebenzi ngokwahlukana kwayo, apho i-automation kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu. eminye imizekelo kukulawula ii-traffic lights, ii-vehicle computers, iinkqubo zokhuseleko, ii-washing machines kunye nee-digital televisions.


Umntu (obizwa ngokuba yi-user okanye ngamanye amaxesha abe yi-wetware) angayilawula ikhompyutha ngokuyixelela (ukuyalela) ukuba yenze izinto ezithile. Ezinye iindlela zokulawula ikhompyutha zikwi-input device njengezi: i-keyboard, i- mouse, amaqhosa, i-touch screen. Ezinye iikhompyutha ezintsha kraca zisenokulawulwa ngemiyalelo eyenziwa ngelizwi okanye ngezijekulo ezenziwa ngezandla okanye ngezijekulo ezenzeka ebuchotsheni zisenzeka ngee-electrodes ezityalwe ebuchotsheni okanye ezihamba ngemithambo.

Iikhompyutha zisenokwenzelwa ukuba zenze nantoni na engolwazi. Iikhompyutha zisetyenziselwa ukulawula iifektri, nebezisoloko zilawulwa ngabantu kwiminyaka egqithileyo. Zikwakho nasemakhaya, apho zisetyenziswa kwizinto ezifana nokumalela ingoma, ukufunda iindaba, nokubhala.

Iikhompyutha zanamhlanje ziimatshini ezihamba ngoombane. Ikhompyutha ibaluleke kuphela xa inazo zombini i-hardware kunye ne-software. I-hardware yingqokolela yezi zinto sizibona ngamehlo sitsho sithi nantsi ikhompyutha - umzekelo, i-keyboard, i-mouse, i-screen, i-tower, kunye nee-circuits ezingaphakathi kuyo. I-Software yi-program yeekhompyutha, (ezinemiyalelo yakwamathematika). I-software isebenzisa i-hardware, xa kanye loo mntu uyisebenzisayo eyinika imiyalelo ize yona iyitshintshe ibe sisiphumo esilulutho eluntwini.

Iikhompyutha zisenokwenziwa ukuze zikwazi ukwenza phantse nantonina enolwazi. Iikhompyutha zisetyenziswa ukulawula iifektri, ezazisoloko zilawulwa ngabantu. Zikwakho nasekhaya, apho zisetyenziswa kwizinto ezifana nokumamela umculo, ukufunda iindaba, kwanokubhala.

Iikhompyutha ezininzi zanamhlanje zenza iintlobo zokubala ezizigidi-gidi. Zenza izibalo zemathematika imathematika ngokukhawuleza kodwa iikhomptha azikwazi "kucinga" zona ngokwazo. Zilandela nje imiyalelo kwii-programs zazo.

Iikhompyutha programs zenzelwe okanye zibhalwa zii-programmers zekhompyutha. Ii-programmers ezimbalwa zizibhala ngolwimi oluqondwa ziikhompyutha ii-programs olo lwimi lwaziwa ngokuba y-i-machine code. Ii-programs ezininzi zisebenzisa ulwimi lwe-programming olunjenge-C++, i-Java, kunye nePython. Ezii ntlobo zeelwimi lwe-programming zifana kakhulu nolwimi oluthethayo nolubhalayo mihla le. I-program ebizwa ngokuba yi-compiler iguqulela imiyalezo yalowo uyisebenzisayo iyise kwi-binary code (i-machine code) eyakuthi ikhompyutha iyiqonde ize yenze oko kufunekayo.


Imbali ngeekhompyutha[tshintsha | edit source]

I-Jacquard loom yenye yee-devices zokuqala ezi-programmable.

Inkcazo[tshintsha | edit source]

Ikhompyutha ngumatshini ohamba ngombane onceda ekubeni kubelula ukusombulula iingxaki ngokukhawuleza nangokulula. Isombulula iingxaki ngokwemiyalelo eyinikwe nguloo msebenzisi wayo obizwa ngokuba zii-programs okanye i-software. Ngumatshini o-digital(osebenzisa ii-binary digits) nosetyenziswa kuwo onke amacandelo ophando.

I-Automation[tshintsha | edit source]

Uluntu lunengxaki nge-maths. Uzuyiqonde loo nto, khawuzame ukubala u-584 x 3,220 ngentloko. kunzima ukukhumbula onke amanqanaba! Abantu benza izixhobo zokubanceda ukuze bakhumbule okokuba bebemi phi na kwezi ngxaki ze-maths. Enye ingxaki abanayo abantu yeyokokuba kufuneka baphinda-phinde besebenzana nale ngxaki amaxesha ngaxesha. Umntu osebenza ethilini kufuneka ayibale ngentloko itshintshi yabantu yonke imihla, okanye ayibale ephepheni. yonke loo migudu itya ixesha elininzi kwaye angade enze iimpazamo kuloo nto. Ngoko ke, abantu benza ii-calculators ezizakuphinda-phinda ziwenza lo msebenzi. Le ndawo kwi-compyutha ibizwa ngokuba y"i-history of automated calculation," intetho eshunqulelwe kakuhle kule ithi "imbali yeematshini eyenza kubelula kum ukuphinda-phinda ndisenza lengxaki ye-maths ngaphandle kokwenza iimpazamo."

I-abacus, i-slide rule, i-astrolabe kunye ne-Antikythera mechanism (ezimihla yazo yalathwa kwiminyaka ye-150-100 BC) yimizekelo yeematshini ze-automated calculation.

I-Programming[tshintsha | edit source]

Template:Main Abanye abantu abafuni matshini ozakuphinda-phinda usenza into enye ngalo lonke ixesha. Imizekelo, ibhokisi yomculo ngumatshini odlala umculo omnye rhoqo. Abanye abantu bafuna ukuba bakwazi ukuwuxelela umatshini wabo ukuba wenze izinto ezahlukileyo. Umzekelo, bafuna ukuyixelela ibhokisi yeengoma ukuba idlale ingxubevange yeengoma ngalo lonke ixesha. Baafuna ukuba bakwazi uku-programa ibhokisi yeengoma - bakwazi ukuyinika imiyalelo yokwenza ingxubevange yomculo. Eli candelo lembali yekhompyutha libizwa ngokuba y"i-history of programmable machines" intetho entle ephuma kwintetho ethi "Imbali yeematshini endinokuzinika imiyalelo yokokuba zenze ingxubevange yezinto ukuba nje ndiyakwazi ukuthetha ulwimi lwazo."

Omnye wemizekelo yokuqala yokwakhiwa kwazo yeyesakhiwo sikaHero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD). Waakha i-mechanical theater eyadlala umdlalo owathatha ishumi lemizuzu, kwaye lo mdlalo wawusenziwa nge-complex system yeentambo okanye iiruphu kunye nezigubhu okanye ii-drums. Ezi-ruphu nee-drums zazilulwimi lwematshini- zaziyalela ukuba mayenze ntoni, iyenze nini na loo nto imatshini. Abanye abantu baathi le yimatshini yokuqala e-programmable.[1]

Iingcali zezembali azivumelani ngomba omalunga nokokuba ingaba zeziphi na iimatshini zokuqala ezaba z "iikhompyutha". Abaninzi bathi y"i-castle clock", i-astronomical clock eyenziwa ngu-Al-Jazari ngo-1206, yeyokuqala ukwaziwa programmable analog computer. Abanye bathi ikhompyutha yokuqala yeenziwa ngu-Charles Babbage.[2] u-Al - Jazari's waabonisa i-zodiac, i-solar kunye ne-lunar orbits, i-crescent moon emile njengenyanga i-pointer eyayihamba inqumla indlela eya egayithini eyayisenza iingcango ezazivuleka qho ngeyure, [3][4] kunye neemvumi ezazingathi zirobots ezintlanu ezazidlala umculo xa zibethwa nge-lever. Ubude bemini nobusuku bungatshintshwa (AKA re-programmed) yonke imihla ukuze kujongelwe ingqalelo ukutshintsha kobude bemini nobusuku unyaka wonke. [2] U-Ada Lovelace waziwa nje ngomntu wokuqala ukuba yi-programmer.[5][6][7]

Ixesha le-khompyu-ting[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwathi xa kuphela ixesha le-Middle Ages, abantu eYurophu bacinga okokuba i-math ne-engineering zibaluleke kakhulu. Ngo-1623, uWilhelm Schickard weenza i-mechanical calculator. Baza ke abanye abantu bakwaseyurophu balandela ekhondweni ngokuthi benze ezinye ezininzi ii-calculators. Zazingezo khompyutha zanamhlanje kuba umsebenzi wazo yayikukubala kuphela, ukudibanisa okanye ukongeza inani kwelinye, ukuthabatha okanye ukucutha inani kwelinye, kwanokuphinda-phinda inani ngelinye - wawungenakuyitshintsha into eziyenzileyo uzenze zenze enye into enjengokuba uzenze zidlale i-Tetris. Ngenxa yoku sithi zazingekho-programmable.

Ngo-1801, uJoseph Marie Jacquard wasebenzisa i-punched paper cards xa exelela i-textile loom yakhe okokuba hlobo luni lwe-pattern olumelwe kukolukwa. wayesenokusebenzisa amakhadi e-punch ukuxelela i-loom ukuba yenze ntoni na, kwaye wayesenokuwatshintsha amakhadi e-punch, oko kuthethe okokuba wayesenokuyi-programa i-loom ukuze yoluke ipattern ayifunayo. Oko kuthetha okokuba i-loom yayi-programmable.

U-Charles Babbage wafuna umatshini ofana nalo kodwa ke wona ube ngumatshini okwaziyo ukubala. Wawubiza ngokuba y-"i-Analytical Engine".[8] Kwathi kuba u-Babbage wayengamali yanelelyo wasoloko eyitshintsha i-design yakhe xa athe wanombono ongcono, zange ayakhe i-Analytical Engine yakhe.

Kwathi ngokuya kuhamba ixesha, zaya zithandwa ngokya zithandwa iikhompyutha. Kwaba yinto ehamba yodwa ekuqaleni. Kungokuba abantu baya bekruquka kukusoloko besenz ainto enye ngalo lonke ixesha. Khawufan'ucinge xa unokuhla ubhala izinto kwikhadi le-index ubomi bakho bonke,uzigcina, uze uphinde kwakhona uhambe uyekuzifuna. I-U.S. Census Bureau yango-1890 yayinamakhulu-khulu abantu ababesenza loo nto nje kuphela. Baakruquka abantu de banodandatheko, de bathi, "Kufanel'ukuba kubekho indlela elula yokwenza le nto." Kwaza ke ngoko kwakho mntu uthile ukrelekrele ngengqondo owazama indlela yokwenza okokuba iimatshini zenze umsebenzi omninzi. U-Herman Hollerith wazama ukujonga okokuba angawenza njani na umatshini ongakwazi ukwengeza ulwazi oluqokolelwe yi-Census bureau. I-Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (eyathi kamva yayi-IBM) yenza ii-matshini zakhe, kwaye wonke umntu wayonwabela loo nto. Bazonwabela de imatshini zabo zophuka, zaxinga, zaza zafuna ukulungiswa. kundeli lixa ke i-Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation yaqala ukufuna inkxaso ye-tech.

Ngenxa yeematshini ezinje nezi, kwaqala kwakho iindlela ezintsha zokuthetha nezi matshini, kwaba ke kukuzalwa kweekhompyutha njengokuba sele sizibona.

Iikhompyutha ze-Analog ne-Digital[tshintsha | edit source]

Kanye kwisiqinga seminyaka yenkulungwane yama-20, zaqala iingcali ukusebenzisa iikhompyutha, ubukhulu becala boyena nobangela kukuba iingcali zinomsebenzi omninzi we-math abafunisela ngayo kwaye bafuna ukuchitha ixesha elininzi becinga ngemfihlelo yehlabathi endaweni yokuchitha ixesha labo bedibanisa amanani. Umzekelo, ukuba bazakwenza umsitho werocket ship, bekufuneka benze i-math eninzi ukuze baqiniseke okokuba i-rocket isebenza kakuhle.

Ngoko ke babezibeka ndawonye iikhompyutha. Ezi khompyutha zazisebenzisa iicircuits zeanalog, ezazisenza okokuba zi-programwe nzima kakhulu. Kwaza ke ngee-1930s, benza ii-khompyutha zedigital, ezathi zenza kwalula ukuzi-programa.

Iikhompyutha ezikumgangatho ophakamileyo[tshintsha | edit source]

Iingcali ziye zafunisela okokuba zingazenza njani na iikhomputha ezi-digital ngeminyaka yoo-1930 neyoo- 1940. Iimbali zeenza inqwaba yeekhompyutha ezi-digital, bathi besazenza njalo, bazama ukujonga okokuba bangazibuza njani na imibuzo efanelekileyo ukuze bafumane eyona yona kuzo. Nazi iikhompyutha zeNazi ezimbalwa abazakhayo:

Template:Immpawu zokuqala kwikhompyutha

EDSAC was one of the first computers that remembered what you told it even after you turned the power off. This is called (von Neumann) architecture.
  • I-electromechanical kaKonrad Zuse ii-"Z machines". IZ3 (1941) ngumatshini wokuqala ukusebenza nowawusebenzisa izibalo zebinary arithmetic. Izibalo ze-Binary zithetha ukusebenzisa u-"ewe" no-"hayi." ukuze kudityaniswe amanani ndawonye. Usenokuyi-program-a. Ngo-1998 i-Z3 yaabonwa okokuba