Ikhompyutha

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Umzobo wanamhlanje oqhelekileyo wekhompyutha yedektop.

Ikhompyutha ngu-matshini (ubukhulu becala uhamba ngombane) okwaziyo ukuthatha ulwazi (ngamanye amagama i-input), ukwenza umsebenzi othile okanye ukwenza utshintsho kolo lwazi lukhoyo ngelo xesha (oku kubizwa ngokuba yi-process), ukuze kudidiyelwe ulwazi olutsha olubizwa ngokuba yi-output). Iikhompyutha zibekho kakhulu kwimbali yoluntu. Imizekelo yeekhompyutha zamandulo zii-astrolabe kunye nee-abacus. Mine imigaqo yokusebenza kwekhompyutha, yile: i-inputting, kukungeniswa kolwazi kwikhompyutha; i-outputting, ukugcinwa nokusetyenzwa kolwazi olungenisiweyo. Zizo zone ke iindlela zokunceda ukuba isebenze ikhompyutha.

Iikhompyutha zangoku zahluke kakhulu kwiikhompyutha zamandulo. Ezi zikhoyo ziimatshini ezisebenzisa amandla ombane ngakumbi. Kangangakuba ziyakwazi ukwenza izigidi-gidi zokubala ngomzuzwana ngamnye. Uninzi lwabantu lusebenzisa i-personal computer emakhayeni abo okanye kwiindawo abasebenza kuzo. Iikhompyutha zibaluleke kakhulu kwiintlobo-ntlobo zemisebenzi ngokwahlukana kwayo, apho i-automation kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu. eminye imizekelo kukulawula ii-traffic lights, ii-vehicle computers, iinkqubo zokhuseleko, ii-washing machines kunye nee-digital televisions.


Umntu (obizwa ngokuba yi-user okanye ngamanye amaxesha abe yi-wetware) angayilawula ikhompyutha ngokuyixelela (ukuyalela) ukuba yenze izinto ezithile. Ezinye iindlela zokulawula ikhompyutha zikwi-input device njengezi: i-keyboard, i- mouse, amaqhosa, i-touch screen. Ezinye iikhompyutha ezintsha kraca zisenokulawulwa ngemiyalelo eyenziwa ngelizwi okanye ngezijekulo ezenziwa ngezandla okanye ngezijekulo ezenzeka ebuchotsheni zisenzeka ngee-electrodes ezityalwe ebuchotsheni okanye ezihamba ngemithambo.

Iikhompyutha zisenokwenzelwa ukuba zenze nantoni na engolwazi. Iikhompyutha zisetyenziselwa ukulawula iifektri, nebezisoloko zilawulwa ngabantu kwiminyaka egqithileyo. Zikwakho nasemakhaya, apho zisetyenziswa kwizinto ezifana nokumalela ingoma, ukufunda iindaba, nokubhala.

Iikhompyutha zanamhlanje ziimatshini ezihamba ngoombane. Ikhompyutha ibaluleke kuphela xa inazo zombini i-hardware kunye ne-software. I-hardware yingqokolela yezi zinto sizibona ngamehlo sitsho sithi nantsi ikhompyutha - umzekelo, i-keyboard, i-mouse, i-screen, i-tower, kunye nee-circuits ezingaphakathi kuyo. I-Software yi-program yeekhompyutha, (ezinemiyalelo yakwamathematika). I-software isebenzisa i-hardware, xa kanye loo mntu uyisebenzisayo eyinika imiyalelo ize yona iyitshintshe ibe sisiphumo esilulutho eluntwini.

Iikhompyutha zisenokwenziwa ukuze zikwazi ukwenza phantse nantonina enolwazi. Iikhompyutha zisetyenziswa ukulawula iifektri, ezazisoloko zilawulwa ngabantu. Zikwakho nasekhaya, apho zisetyenziswa kwizinto ezifana nokumamela umculo, ukufunda iindaba, kwanokubhala.

Iikhompyutha ezininzi zanamhlanje zenza iintlobo zokubala ezizigidi-gidi. Zenza izibalo zemathematika imathematika ngokukhawuleza kodwa iikhomptha azikwazi "kucinga" zona ngokwazo. Zilandela nje imiyalelo kwii-programs zazo.

Ikhompyutha programs zenzelwe okanye zibhalwa zii-programmers zekhompyutha. Ii-programmers ezimbalwa zizibhala ngolwimi oluqondwa ziikhompyutha ii-programs olo lwimi lwaziwa ngokuba y-i-machine code. Ii-programs ezininzi zisebenzisa ulwimi lwe-programming olunjenge-C++, i-Java, kunye nePython. Ezii ntlobo zeelwimi lwe-programming zifana kakhulu nolwimi oluthethayo nolubhalayo mihla le. I-program ebizwa ngokuba yi-compiler iguqulela imiyalezo yalowo uyisebenzisayo iyise kwi-binary code (i-machine code) eyakuthi ikhompyutha iyiqonde ize yenze oko kufuneka ikwenzile.