Ikhompyutha

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Umzobo wanamhlanje oqhelekileyo wekhompyutha yedektop.

Ikhompyutha ngu-matshini (ubukhulu becala uhamba ngombane) okwaziyo ukuthatha ulwazi (ngamanye amagama i-input), ukwenza umsebenzi othile okanye ukwenza utshintsho kolo lwazi lukhoyo ngelo xesha (oku kubizwa ngokuba yi-process), ukuze kudidiyelwe ulwazi olutsha olubizwa ngokuba yi-output). Iikhompyutha zibekho kakhulu kwimbali yoluntu. Imizekelo yeekhompyutha zamandulo zii-astrolabe kunye nee-abacus. Mine imigaqo yokusebenza kwekhompyutha, yile: i-inputting, kukungeniswa kolwazi kwikhompyutha; i-outputting, ukugcinwa nokusetyenzwa kolwazi olungenisiweyo. Zizo zone ke iindlela zokunceda ukuba isebenze ikhompyutha.

Iikhompyutha zangoku zahluke kakhulu kwiikhompyutha zamandulo. Ezi zikhoyo ziimatshini ezisebenzisa amandla ombane ngakumbi. Kangangakuba ziyakwazi ukwenza izigidi-gidi zokubala ngomzuzwana ngamnye. Uninzi lwabantu lusebenzisa i-personal computer emakhayeni abo okanye kwiindawo abasebenza kuzo. Iikhompyutha zibaluleke kakhulu kwiintlobo-ntlobo zemisebenzi ngokwahlukana kwayo, apho i-automation kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu. eminye imizekelo kukulawula ii-traffic lights, ii-vehicle computers, iinkqubo zokhuseleko, ii-washing machines kunye nee-digital televisions.


Umntu (obizwa ngokuba yi-user okanye ngamanye amaxesha abe yi-wetware) angayilawula ikhompyutha ngokuyixelela (ukuyalela) ukuba yenze izinto ezithile. Ezinye iindlela zokulawula ikhompyutha zikwi-input device njengezi: i-keyboard, i- mouse, amaqhosa, i-touch screen. Ezinye iikhompyutha ezintsha kraca zisenokulawulwa ngemiyalelo eyenziwa ngelizwi okanye ngezijekulo ezenziwa ngezandla okanye ngezijekulo ezenzeka ebuchotsheni zisenzeka ngee-electrodes ezityalwe ebuchotsheni okanye ezihamba ngemithambo.

Iikhompyutha zisenokwenzelwa ukuba zenze nantoni na engolwazi. Iikhompyutha zisetyenziselwa ukulawula iifektri, nebezisoloko zilawulwa ngabantu kwiminyaka egqithileyo. Zikwakho nasemakhaya, apho zisetyenziswa kwizinto ezifana nokumalela ingoma, ukufunda iindaba, nokubhala.

Iikhompyutha zanamhlanje ziimatshini ezihamba ngoombane. Ikhompyutha ibaluleke kuphela xa inazo zombini i-hardware kunye ne-software. I-hardware yingqokolela yezi zinto sizibona ngamehlo sitsho sithi nantsi ikhompyutha - umzekelo, i-keyboard, i-mouse, i-screen, i-tower, kunye nee-circuits ezingaphakathi kuyo. I-Software yi-program yeekhompyutha, (ezinemiyalelo yakwamathematika). I-software isebenzisa i-hardware, xa kanye loo mntu uyisebenzisayo eyinika imiyalelo ize yona iyitshintshe ibe sisiphumo esilulutho eluntwini.

Iikhompyutha zisenokwenziwa ukuze zikwazi ukwenza phantse nantonina enolwazi. Iikhompyutha zisetyenziswa ukulawula iifektri, ezazisoloko zilawulwa ngabantu. Zikwakho nasekhaya, apho zisetyenziswa kwizinto ezifana nokumamela umculo, ukufunda iindaba, kwanokubhala.

Iikhompyutha ezininzi zanamhlanje zenza iintlobo zokubala ezizigidi-gidi. Zenza izibalo zemathematika imathematika ngokukhawuleza kodwa iikhomptha azikwazi "kucinga" zona ngokwazo. Zilandela nje imiyalelo kwii-programs zazo.

Iikhompyutha programs zenzelwe okanye zibhalwa zii-programmers zekhompyutha. Ii-programmers ezimbalwa zizibhala ngolwimi oluqondwa ziikhompyutha ii-programs olo lwimi lwaziwa ngokuba y-i-machine code. Ii-programs ezininzi zisebenzisa ulwimi lwe-programming olunjenge-C++, i-Java, kunye nePython. Ezii ntlobo zeelwimi lwe-programming zifana kakhulu nolwimi oluthethayo nolubhalayo mihla le. I-program ebizwa ngokuba yi-compiler iguqulela imiyalezo yalowo uyisebenzisayo iyise kwi-binary code (i-machine code) eyakuthi ikhompyutha iyiqonde ize yenze oko kufunekayo.


Imbali ngeekhompyutha[tshintsha | edit source]

I-Jacquard loom yenye yee-devices zokuqala ezi-programmable.

Inkcazo[tshintsha | edit source]

Ikhompyutha ngumatshini ohamba ngombane onceda ekubeni kubelula ukusombulula iingxaki ngokukhawuleza nangokulula. Isombulula iingxaki ngokwemiyalelo eyinikwe nguloo msebenzisi wayo obizwa ngokuba zii-programs okanye i-software. Ngumatshini o-digital(osebenzisa ii-binary digits) nosetyenziswa kuwo onke amacandelo ophando.

I-Automation[tshintsha | edit source]

Uluntu lunengxaki nge-maths. Uzuyiqonde loo nto, khawuzame ukubala u-584 x 3,220 ngentloko. kunzima ukukhumbula onke amanqanaba! Abantu benza izixhobo zokubanceda ukuze bakhumbule okokuba bebemi phi na kwezi ngxaki ze-maths. Enye ingxaki abanayo abantu yeyokokuba kufuneka baphinda-phinde besebenzana nale ngxaki amaxesha ngaxesha. Umntu osebenza ethilini kufuneka ayibale ngentloko itshintshi yabantu yonke imihla, okanye ayibale ephepheni. yonke loo migudu itya ixesha elininzi kwaye angade enze iimpazamo kuloo nto. Ngoko ke, abantu benza ii-calculators ezizakuphinda-phinda ziwenza lo msebenzi. Le ndawo kwi-compyutha ibizwa ngokuba y"i-history of automated calculation," intetho eshunqulelwe kakuhle kule ithi "imbali yeematshini eyenza kubelula kum ukuphinda-phinda ndisenza lengxaki ye-maths ngaphandle kokwenza iimpazamo."

I-abacus, i-slide rule, i-astrolabe kunye ne-Antikythera mechanism (ezimihla yazo yalathwa kwiminyaka ye-150-100 BC) yimizekelo yeematshini ze-automated calculation.

I-Programming[tshintsha | edit source]

Template:Main Abanye abantu abafuni matshini ozakuphinda-phinda usenza into enye ngalo lonke ixesha. Imizekelo, ibhokisi yomculo ngumatshini odlala umculo omnye rhoqo. Abanye abantu bafuna ukuba bakwazi ukuwuxelela umatshini wabo ukuba wenze izinto ezahlukileyo. Umzekelo, bafuna ukuyixelela ibhokisi yeengoma ukuba idlale ingxubevange yeengoma ngalo lonke ixesha. Baafuna ukuba bakwazi uku-programa ibhokisi yeengoma - bakwazi ukuyinika imiyalelo yokwenza ingxubevange yomculo. Eli candelo lembali yekhompyutha libizwa ngokuba y"i-history of programmable machines" intetho entle ephuma kwintetho ethi "Imbali yeematshini endinokuzinika imiyalelo yokokuba zenze ingxubevange yezinto ukuba nje ndiyakwazi ukuthetha ulwimi lwazo."

Omnye wemizekelo yokuqala yokwakhiwa kwazo yeyesakhiwo sikaHero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD). Waakha i-mechanical theater eyadlala umdlalo owathatha ishumi lemizuzu, kwaye lo mdlalo wawusenziwa nge-complex system yeentambo okanye iiruphu kunye nezigubhu okanye ii-drums. Ezi-ruphu nee-drums zazilulwimi lwematshini- zaziyalela ukuba mayenze ntoni, iyenze nini na loo nto imatshini. Abanye abantu baathi le yimatshini yokuqala e-programmable.[1]

Iingcali zezembali azivumelani ngomba omalunga nokokuba ingaba zeziphi na iimatshini zokuqala ezaba z "iikhompyutha". Abaninzi bathi y"i-castle clock", i-astronomical clock eyenziwa ngu-Al-Jazari ngo-1206, yeyokuqala ukwaziwa programmable analog computer. Abanye bathi ikhompyutha yokuqala yeenziwa ngu-Charles Babbage.[2] u-Al - Jazari's waabonisa i-zodiac, i-solar kunye ne-lunar orbits, i-crescent moon emile njengenyanga i-pointer eyayihamba inqumla indlela eya egayithini eyayisenza iingcango ezazivuleka qho ngeyure, [3][4] kunye neemvumi ezazingathi zirobots ezintlanu ezazidlala umculo xa zibethwa nge-lever. Ubude bemini nobusuku bungatshintshwa (AKA re-programmed) yonke imihla ukuze kujongelwe ingqalelo ukutshintsha kobude bemini nobusuku unyaka wonke. [2] U-Ada Lovelace waziwa nje ngomntu wokuqala ukuba yi-programmer.[5][6][7]

Ixesha le-Computing[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwathi xa kuphela ixesha le-Middle Ages, abantu eYurophu bacinga okokuba i-math ne-engineering zibaluleke kakhulu. Ngo-1623, uWilhelm Schickard weenza i-mechanical calculator. Baza ke abanye abantu bakwaseyurophu balandela ekhondweni ngokuthi benze ezinye ezininzi ii-calculators. Zazingezo khompyutha zanamhlanje kuba umsebenzi wazo yayikukubala kuphela, ukudibanisa okanye ukongeza inani kwelinye, ukuthabatha okanye ukucutha inani kwelinye, kwanokuphinda-phinda inani ngelinye - wawungenakuyitshintsha into eziyenzileyo uzenze zenze enye into enjengokuba uzenze zidlale i-Tetris. Ngenxa yoku sithi zazingekho-programmable.

Ngo-1801, uJoseph Marie Jacquard wasebenzisa i-punched paper cards xa exelela i-textile loom yakhe okokuba hlobo luni lwe-pattern olumelwe kukolukwa. wayesenokusebenzisa amakhadi e-punch ukuxelela i-loom ukuba yenze ntoni na, kwaye wayesenokuwatshintsha amakhadi e-punch, oko kuthethe okokuba wayesenokuyi-programa i-loom ukuze yoluke ipattern ayifunayo. Oko kuthetha okokuba i-loom yayi-programmable.

  1. "Heron of Alexandria". http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/HeronAlexandria2.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-15.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Template:Citation
  3. Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0
  4. Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64-9 (compare Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  5. Template:Harvnb.
  6. Phillips, Ana Lena (November–December 2011) "Crowdsourcing gender equity: Ada lovelace day, and its companion website, aims to raise the profile of women in science and technology" American Scientist 99 (6): 463 
  7. Template:Citation.