IsiXhosa

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IsiXhosa
Inani yabathethi yesiXhosa eMzantsi Afrika: abantu abathetha isiXhosa ekhaya.   Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend  Template:Legend Template:Legend Template:Legend
Amazwe Mzantsi Afrika
ISO 639
ISO 639-1 xh
ISO 639-2 xho
ISO 639-3 xho
Ibali Xhosa

IsiXhosa lolunye lweelwimi zaseMzantsi Afrika ezingundoqo nezaziwayo. Sithethwa ngabantu abaqikelela kwi-7.6 sezigidi okanye i-18% lwabemi baseMzantsi Afrika luphela, ngakumbi kwiphondo leMpuma Koloni neleNtshona Koloni eMzantsi Afrika. Kwimbali yakwaXhosa sinamaqhawe ngamaqhawe kwimiba emininzi. Sinabo ababhali besiXhosa abathi baqaqamba ekunikeni imbali eyiyo ngoXhosa beyinika ngesiXhosa. Zininzi ke iingongoma abanyathela phezu kwazo aba babhali.

Njengazo zonke iilwimi zesiNtu, isiXhosa lulwimi oluhambisana kakhulu nezandi ezenziwa ngamagama. Oko kukuthi amagama abhalwa ngokufanayo nqwa angabizwa ngeendlela ezingafaniyo (ukuwa nokunyuka kwentsholo eyenziwayo xa kubizwa lo magama); namagama abhalwa ngokufanayo angaba neentsingiselo ezingafaniyo. Ngamanye amazwi isiXhosa sisebenzisa amaqabane kunye nezakhi ngokohlobo oluthile olwenza intsingiselo nemvakalo yamagama afanayo nqwa ingafani. Okona kubalulekileyo nangakumbi kulwimi lwesiXhosa kukuba lusebenzisa iziqhakancu, u-x, u-c, no-q.

Udumo lwesiXhosa lubonakala kumhobe wesizwe saseMzantsi Afrika, UNkosi sikelela iAfrika, owabhalwa nguEnoch Sontonga nowaye ngumXhosa ngokokuzalwa. Kwalona igama lolwimi lunesandi u-x. UMama uMiriam Makeba owayeyimvumi yaseMzantsi Afrika, walusasaza udumo lwengoma ethi "Igqirha lendlela" ebhalwe ngesiXhosa. Loo ngoma idume ngokuba nezandi/neziqhakancu u-q, u-gq no-ngq.

Lona ke ulwimi lubhala ngesiLatini, lunefonetiki nolwimi ulufundiswayo ezikolweni, koonokholeji nasezidyunivesithi.

Ulwimi lwesiXhosa kukuphela kolwimi lwesintu olufundiswa esikolweni eMpuma Koloni. Umzekelo: nangona amaMpondo ethetha isiMpondo, amaBhaca ethetha isiBhaca ngokuthi ayatshefula, nabanye abantu bethatha iilwimi zabo, kodwa xa kusiyiwa esikolweni, lunye ulwimi lwemveli olutitshwa ezikolweni, sisiXhosa. Zohluka-hlukene iintlanga zaseMpuma-Koloni. Kukho amaMpondo (utata uOliver Tambo uliMpondo, Kukho abaThembu (utata uMandela ungumThembu), amaBhaca, amaMpondomise, amaMfengu, amaRharhabe, amaGcaleka, amaNgqunukhwebe kunye nezinye izihlakani. Loo nto eye yadala ukubakho kwesiXhosa seengingqi.

Commons-logo.svg Xhosa language

UNontando Jabavu,

Umbhali nentatheli uHelen Nontando (Noni) Jabavu wazalelwa kusapho lwezifundiswa eMpuma Koloni ngama-1919. Wathi akubaneminyaka elishumi elinesithathu, wafunda eNgilandi, waqhubekeka ehlala phaya iminyaka emininzi. Waba ngomnye wababhali neentatheli zase-Afrika ezingamanina.

Noni Jabavu.png

Ngama-1955 uNoni Jabavu wabuyela eMzantsi Afrika wahlala iinyanga ezintathu. Watyelela uyise uNjingalwazi D.D.T. Jabavu waseForthare, nezizalwane eMpuma Koloni naseGoli. i’The Ochre People’ eyapapashwa okokuqala ngama-1963 yingxelo ecacileyo yohambo lwakhe nequlathe iinkumbulo ezicace gca neziqondakalayo zelizwe awayelithanda nabantu awadibana nabo.

“Ilizwi lombhali” kuDrawn in Colour nalo lingabangumdla:

“Ndingowamazwe amabini endinyaniseke kuwo: UMzantsi Afrika apho ndazalelwa khona neNgilandi apho ndafunda khona. Ndithe xa ndifumana intambo evela kutata, ndabhabha ndabuyela eMzantsi Afrika ukuze ndibephakathi kwaBantu bakuthi, ndishiya umyeni wam onguMngesi emva eLondon. Ekupheleni kwala nyaka, mna naye saya kuhlala eMpuma Afrika, ukusondelela udade ekukuphela kwakhe owayetshatele apho. Apha ndibalise nto ngemvelaphi neemeko endisuka kuzo. Le yingxelo yam ngamava neendlela zokubona izinto zomahluko phakathi kweMpuma noMzantsi Afrika ekungeniseni kwazo intlalo yaseNtshona.

UJabavu wasweleka nge-19 kweyeSilimela ngama-2008 eneminyaka engama-88. Lo mqolo ulandelayo obhalwe yimbongi uMakhosazana Xaba yimbeko efanelekileyo enokunikwa ngenxa yesakhono sakhe sokubhala nobuntatheli.

Isigqibo sam sokubhala ibali ngobomi bukaNoni Jabavu siqhutywe kukufuna ukwazi nokucaphuka okungazenzisiyo ngenxa yento ebibonakala kum njengokungaqatshelwa kwendima yakhe yokuqala njengombhali nentatheli. Ubani kufuneka afunde nje iincwadi zakhe ezimbini (uDrawn in Colour noThe Ochre People) ukuze abone ukuba wayenesiphiwo kangakanani njengombhali weziganeko zobomi. Iikholamu zomhleli zakhe zobuntathetheli zibonakalisa isimbo sokuchaza esakha umfanekiso-ngqonweni ebekufanele ukuba besingaqhelekanga ngexesha lakhe. Ngelixa bendinodliwano-ndlebe noWally Serote owayehlala eBotswana mgokuya uNoni wayehlala khona naye, ndifunde nto eqinisekise iingcinga zam zokuqala ngaye.

“Wayesithi thina madoda asikwazi ukunxulumana naye (uNoni). Wayelinina elaliphila ngaphaya kwamaxesha ethu.” Le nto ithetha lukhulu nangakumbi kuba uSerote yingcali yoncwadi nezenkcubeko yena kuqala.

UTiyo Soga

Umhlahlindlela wengqondi yeAfrika uTiyo Soga wazalelwa kwiphondo leMpuma Koloni ngonyaka we-1829. Unina yayinguNosuthu, uyise, uJotello Soga wayengumcebisi omkhulu weNkosi eyongameleyo yamaXhosa, iNkosi uNgqika.

USoga wahamba isikolo seemishinari apho uphawu lwakhe lobulunga lwaqatshelwa yimishinari, uWilliam Chalmers owamlungiselela ukuba abhale uviwo lokungena eTyhume kwisikolo sabafundisi ngonyaka we-1844.

Usoga kuviwo, wakhwankqiswa yingxaki yokuthabatha elula ebhodini. Nangona kunjalo, uChalmers waqinisekisa intloko yaseTyhume, uWilliam Govan amkele uSoga owathi ekuhambeni kwexesha wazibonakalisa, engomnye wabo bathathu babephumelele emagqabini phantse kuzo zonke izifundo zakhe.

Ngonyaka we-1846, “iMfazwe yeZembe” yehla ngakumda kwiphondo leMpuma Koloni, uSoga wazikhusela kunye nonina eFort Armstrong, waqhubeka nokufunda ebusuku ngomlilo. UWilliam Govon wagqiba kwelokubuyela eScotland kwaye wathathela uSoga kuye ukuqhubela phambili amathuba akhe.

USoga ekuthiwa waguqukela ngokugqibeleleyo kwinkolo yobuKrestu eseyinkwenkwana ngenxa yamava okholo awawafumana kwisikolo secawa, waye waphehlelelwa eScotland ngonyaka we-1848.Wabuyela kwiphondo leMpuma Koloni, ukusukela ngonyaka we-1849 wasebenza njengotitshala ngenkolo yobuKrisru nomvangeli phambi kokuba abuyele eScotland ayokufunda izifundo zobuThixo. USoga wathweswa isidanga kwizifundo zobuThixo kwiYunivesithi iGlascow enama-27 eminyaka, wabekwa njengomfundisi webandla i-United Presbyterian Church ngonyaka we-1856, umAfrika wokuqala ukuphumelela oku.

Ngonyaka we-1857, watshata nentokazi yaseScotland,uJanet Burniside. Babenabantwana abasixhenxe. Phambi kokuba abhubhe ngonyaka we-1871, wayalela abantwana bakhe,abanye ewayefuna bafumane imfundo eScotland, ingazange yabenzela ntloni into yokuba uyise wabo wayengum-Afrika. “Yiyo nayiphi na intwana elunge necwenge njengaleyo yehla kwimithambo yabazalwane bam abanyanisekileyo”, wabhala.

Wabiza abantwana bakhe ukonwabela inkumbulo ngomama wabo “njengonobulungisa, inkathalo noqoqosho, intokazi engumKrestu”. “Nakuhlala ninombulelo nokunxulumana kwenu nolumanyano nohlanga olumhlophe”, wabayalela. USoga wabonisa nokuqondana ngokobuzwe ngokubhekiselele kulwabelwano lohambo lwawo onke ama-Afrika, kuquka ukuthi saa kwamakholwa. Kuhambo lwakhe lokubuyela eMzantsi Afrika ngonyaka we-1857, wabhala into ngoku eyaziwa njengephephandaba lokuqala ukuveliswa ngumntu omnyama woMzantsi Afrika.

USoga wabhala iintsomi, amaqhalo, amavo, umlibo weenkosi nembali kwaye ekuthanda ukuqamba amaculo ecawa. Wasebenza ngokungadinwa, efundisa, eshumayela, ebhala- de impilo yakhe yaxhwaleka wosulelwa nasisifo sephepha ngonyaka we-1866.

Nangona kunjalo, waqhubeka wasebenza kuguqulo lwendumasiso lwenoveli yodidi engumzekeliso kaJohn Bunyan, Uhambo lomhambi,walenza ibali lahambelana namava amaXhosa kwaye walenza lwaba lolona ncwadi lubalulekileyo nolunempembelelo kwinkulungwane ye-19 kuMzantis Afrika emva kweBhayibhile. Emva kweminyaka emini, wonyulwa kwibhodi ukuhlaziya uguqulo lweBhayibhile yesiXhosa apho wabanegalelo elikhulu. Nangona, uSoga zange aphile ukuze abone ukupapashwa kwayo. Wasweleka ngenxa yesifo sephepha eThuthurha ngaseGcuwa ngonyaka we-1871 eneminyaka engama-42.

UNtsikana

UNtsikana wasungula umbutho wokuqala wamakrestu angam’Afrika pha ngeminyaka ye-1815.  Wayekwangumbali wokuqala ngesixhosa obalaseleyo wamaculo ecawa, kwaye iculo lakhe elibalaseleyo liyavela kwiincwadi ezininzi zamaculo ecawa zalemihla. UNtsikane lo wazalwa pha ngeminyaka ye-1780 kwiziswe sikaNgqika owayongamele amaRharhabe, wabaliphakathi ngokomnombo. Wayekhona xeshikweni iwhite settlement ye Eastern Frontier isanda kwaye kukho ungquzulwano phakathi kwamaXhosa nalamasetilane matsha. Utata kaNtsikane, uGaba wayenesithembu njengenkoliso yamaXhosa phambi kokuba aguqulwe (Bokwe 1914,4). Umama wakhe uNonabe wayengumfazi wesibini. Umfazi wokuqala wayenesikhwele waza wathyola uNonabe ngobugqwirha, uNonabe wanyanzeleka ukuba abaleke asindise ubomi bakhe. Emveni kwenyanga ezimbalwa uNtsikana wazalwa. Utata kaNtsikana waya kumlanda xa wayeneminyaka elishuni elinesibini. Njengoko uGaba wayezele intombi kumfazi wokuqala, uNoyiki wamamkela njengonyana wakhe.  UNtsikane ukhule esolusa umhlambi katata wakhe kwaye efunda nokuzingela. Xeshikweni elulutsha, uVan Der Kemp weLondon missionary society waza kulenginqgi ihlala uNtsikana. Ukusuka ngowe-1799 ukuya kowe-1801 lemissionary yazama ukushumayeza kodwa impumelelo yayo yabancinci. UNtsikane waqala ukuwuva kuye lomyalezo wobuKrestu. UVan Der Kemp wawushiya umhlaba kaNgqika waya kuhlala eGraaff-Reinet. Imfazwe yalandela kwi-eastern frontier phakathi kweenkosi eziitshatsheleyo zakwaRharhabe, uNgqika noNdlambe. Le mfazwe yaphela kwidabi lase-Amalinda apho uNgqika wohlulwa khona. Amajoni kaNdlambe ahlasele iGrahamstown ngowe1819 (kwi frontier war yesihlanu) kwaye umda wamiliselwa phakathi komlambo iKeiskamma ne Fish river. Zange kwafika missionary kwingingqi kaNtsikane de yabangowe-1816. Yayingumfundisi uJoseph Williams, owavula imissionary station ecaleni komlambo iKat.

Emveni kobukhwetha nokungena ebudodeni, uNtsikana wathwalelwa abafazi ababini. uNontsonta owabangumama kaKobe, uNomamto owabangumama kaDukwana nabaninawa bakhe ababini. Ekuswelekeni kukatata wakhe, uNtsikana wafumana ilifa. Ngelixesha uNtsikane wayeneembono. Wayenenkunzi yenkomo awayeyithanda Kunene, yayilubhelu inamacokoza amhlobhe ineempondo ezinkulu igama layo inguHulushe. Ngenye intsasa wavukela ebuhlanti waya waphawula imitha yelanga ekhanya ukodlula eminye ikhanya kwicala lale nkunzi. Wakhangela imvelaphi yalemitha. Xa ebuza uKobe owayemi ecaleni kwakhe ukuba usibonile na esi sehlo, ukobe waphendula ngelithi hayi andibonanga nto. UNtsikana wamangaliswa sesisehlo. Kwenzeka omnye ummangaliso kwangaloomini emtshatweni. UNtsikana waya waguduka nosapho lwakhe, kwalapha endleleni waya wavasa imbola yakhe. Akekho owayekuqonda okwenzekileyo kuye. Ekuhambeni kweentsuku waqala wandumzela iculo elaphela iliculo lakhe lecawa. Waxelela abantu ukuba kumele bathandaze, waqala ngoko ukubamba inkonzo rhoqo. Wathi mabangalimameli ela xhwele uNxele. Oku yaba sisiqalo sebandla lakhe. UNtsikane akazange ahlale eMission kodwa wayemndwendwela umfundisi uWilliams, nasekuswelekeni kuka Williams waqhubekeka endwendwela umfundisi uBrownlee. Phambi kokuba asweleke ngonyaka we-1821 wayecinga nzulu ngokuyokuhlala kwimissioni iChumie (Hodgson 1981,6). UNtsikana wabhala amaculo ecawa amane, elona laziwayo leli lakhe. Onke asafumaneka kwiincwadi zale mihla zamaculo ecawa.              

Albertina Nontsikelelo Sisulu              

UNkosikazi Nontsikelelo Albertina Sisulu wayengomnye wabantu abafaka isandla ekulweni ingcinezelo, nokwangumhlolokazi wegqala lomzabalazo uMnumzana uWalter Sisulu. Umzabalazo weli loMzantsi Afrika udale iinkokheli ezibo0nakalise ukukhalipha nokuzimisela okubalaseleyo ekujongneni nenkohlakalo yentshutshiso.

U- Albertina Sisulu ube phambili kumzabalazo phantse isiqingatha  sonke senkulungwane esilwa inkohlakalo nentshutshiso yenqala, eyeyibangelwa lulawulo ngokobuhlanga. Akabanga ngumzekelo ophilayo nje kumoya wentshukumo yenkululeko, kodwa kwindima ebalulekileyo edlalwa ngabafazi kuwo.

U- Albertina wabangomye woomama ababekhokele amawaka amanina awayesingisele kwiZakhiwo Zomanyano ePitoli, ngexesha le-Women’s March eyindumasi. UAlbertina wazalelwa Phesha-KweNciba ngomnyaka wama-1918. Kwimpilo kamama wakhe eyayingentle, uAlbertina owayeneminyaka elishumi elinanye wayalelwa nguyise owayesele elele kwikhuko lakhe lokufa ukuba aze ajonge abanakwabo kunye noodade bakhe.

U- Albertina wayenezicwangciso zokuba nguNongendi, kodwa endaweni yoko waphela egqiba ekubeni abe ngumongikazi ukuze ukubhatala izifundo zabantakwabo. Ngomnyaka wama- 1944 waye wazimanya ngeqhina lomtshato kunye noMnumzana uWalter Sisulu. Umyeni wakhe wamkhuthaza ekubeni azibandakanye nezopolitiko nasekuncedeni uluntu. Njengomongikazi wayila ucwangciso-ntsapho kummandla wase-Orlando.

Uthe ngomnayaka wama -1955 wazibandakanya nombutho we – A.N.C Women’s League. Ngomnyaka wama – 1956 u-Albetina ekunye noLilian Ngoyi, u-Helen Joseph kunye no-Amila Cachalia, bakhokela amawaka amanina ukusingisela ukusingisela kwiZakhiwo Zomanyano ePitoli ngexesha le Women’s March eyindumasi eyayichasene noluntu oluntsundu ekunyanzelisweni ukuba luphathe amapasi.

Wayengomnye wabaseki bombutho i- United Democratic Movement, I - U.D.M ngamafutshane. Mhla umyeni wakhe wonyulwa njengonobhala jikelele wokuqala weqela le -African National Congress, i - A.N.C ngamafutshane, u – Albertina waba ngumondli – ntsapho.Wayekwalilo neqhagamshela leenkokheli ze – A.N.C Kunye nezo zaziselubhacweni. Amapolisa okhuselo ayemnbandezela rhoqo, kwaye ethintelwa, agwetyelwe ukuhlala ngendlu okanye avalelwe entolongweni, maxesha wambi avalelwe yedwa.

Abakwa Sisulu balizwa ngabantwana abahlanu; u-Max, uLungi, uZwelakhe, uLindiwe kunye noNkululeko, nabantwana abathathu ababamnkela njengababo. Aba ke ngabantwana bodadeka – Walter; u- Gerald, u- Beryl kunye no- Samuel, udade ka- Walter wakhula evana kakhulu no – Walter ngexa wayeseluvalelweni e – Robben Island.

Bonke abantwana babo bakhulele endlwini yabo eyayiseSoweto. Baye bafudukela endlwini entsha eyayise- Linden, eRhawutini kwiminyaka emine nje phambi kokusweleka kuka tata u- Walter, U- Albertina wayigqithisela kubantwana babo imbophelelo yakhe kumzabalazo. Unyana wabo omkhulu u- Max wabanjwa eneminyaka eli- 17, waya elubhacweni emva kokubanjwa kukayise e- Rivonia ngomnyaka wama- 1963.

Umntakwabo uZwelakhe wabandakanyeka kupapasho lwe- New Nation eyayisele inyinwe izihlandlo eziliqela. Naye wakhe wabanjwa iminyaka emibini ngaphandle kwengxoxo yetyala lakhe. Sele iyiminyaka engamshumi amahlanu u- Albertina wazibophelela kwi- Albertina Sisulu Foundatione egxile kwimiceli-mngeni abantwana nabantu abadala abajongene nayo. Waye wahlonitshwa ngokuzinikela kwakhe kumzabalazo owawuchasene nocalu-calulo kunye nomsebenzi wentlalo-ntle phakathi kwamanina kunye nabantwana, mhla i- World Peace Council yase- Basel, e- Switzerland yamonyula njengo mongameli wayo.

Ngomnyaka wama- 2002 umolokazana wakhe u- Ellinor Sisulu washicilela ibali ngobomi babazali bomyeni wakhe, eyathiywa ngesihloko esithi, “Walter & Albertina Sisulu – In Our Lifetime” apho achaza khona ibali lesi sibini sibalaseleyo. Umama uSisulu wasweleka  ngequbuliso ekhayeni lakhe elise – Linden, eRhawutini eneminyaka engama- 92 ngomhla we – 2 KweyeSilimela ngomyaka wama- 2011. UWilliam Wellington Gqoba (1840-88) wayedume kakhulu ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yethoba, kwizifundiswa zaseAfrika, nezaziphuma kummandla weMpuma-Koloni yoMzantsi Afrika. Ngokomsebenzi, wayengumakhi weenqwelo, engumshumayeli osesikweni weFree Church of Scotland, engutitshala, engumbhali wembali, eyimbongi, engumbalisi weembali, iintsomi namaqhalo, ekwanguye nomhleli. Ngokufutshane ngobomi bakhe, usebenze kwiizitishi zemishini njengomfundisi womthetho-siseko wenkolo yobuKhrestu, waze wayigqibezela inkqubela-phambili yobomi bakhe njengomhleli wephepha-ndaba laseLovedale, Isigidimi samaXhosa, apho athe wayila waze wancedisa ekubhaleni izibongo ezithetha phandle ngokubhukuqa nokugweba imfundo yaseNtshona, ukulawulwa kwabantu abamnyama ngabaseNtshona nocalu-calulo ababephantsi kwalo. Lo kaGqoba wayengumfanekiso wendoda yomXhosa efundileyo. Ngokungenakulinganiswa nabani na, ngexesha lakhe lohlobo loluhlu lokubhala kwakhe, ebengumbhali weeleta, amabali eembali ezimfutshane, iinkcazelo zamaqhina, iimbali nezibongo, kuquka izibongo ezimbini ezide ezikwintlobo yeengxoxo-mpikiswano nezabakho ngaphezu kweminyaka engamashumi amahlanu kulwimi lwesiXhosa. Le ncwadi idibanisa, ikwaguqulela imibhalo ebonakala ngokucace gca kaWilliam Wellington Gqoba kulwimi lwesiNgesi. Le mibhalo iveza imbono yombhali ngoguquko lwesizwe se-Afrika, ekuziqhelelaniseni ngendlela enganelisiyo kumasiko nezithethe nobulungisa baseNtshona, sikhangele ukuqinisekisa ubuni baso ngokuqwalasela kwixesha laso elidlulileyo, sime kwinkcochoyi yokuhlanganisa inkcaso yokuphathwa ngabantu abamhlophe kunye nokwakha intlalo, inkululeko yepolitiki nenkolo yesithanga saseNtshona.

UWellington Gqoba (1840-88)

UWilliam Wellington Gqoba (1840-88) wayedume kakhulu ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yethoba, kwizifundiswa zaseAfrika, nezaziphuma kummandla weMpuma-Koloni yoMzantsi Afrika.

Ngokomsebenzi, wayengumakhi weenqwelo, engumshumayeli osesikweni weFree Church of Scotland, engutitshala, engumbhali wembali, eyimbongi, engumbalisi weembali, iintsomi namaqhalo, ekwanguye nomhleli. Ngokufutshane ngobomi bakhe, usebenze kwiizitishi zemishini njengomfundisi womthetho-siseko wenkolo yobuKhrestu, waze wayigqibezela inkqubela-phambili yobomi bakhe njengomhleli wephepha-ndaba laseLovedale, Isigidimi samaXhosa, apho athe wayila waze wancedisa ekubhaleni izibongo ezithetha phandle ngokubhukuqa nokugweba imfundo yaseNtshona, ukulawulwa kwabantu abamnyama ngabaseNtshona nocalu-calulo ababephantsi kwalo. Lo kaGqoba wayengumfanekiso wendoda yomXhosa efundileyo. Ngokungenakulinganiswa nabani na, ngexesha lakhe lohlobo loluhlu lokubhala kwakhe, ebengumbhali weeleta, amabali eembali ezimfutshane, iinkcazelo zamaqhina, iimbali nezibongo, kuquka izibongo ezimbini ezide ezikwintlobo yeengxoxo-mpikiswano nezabakho ngaphezu kweminyaka engamashumi amahlanu kulwimi lwesiXhosa.

Le ncwadi idibanisa, ikwaguqulela imibhalo ebonakala ngokucace gca kaWilliam Wellington Gqoba kulwimi lwesiNgesi. Le mibhalo iveza imbono yombhali ngoguquko lwesizwe se-Afrika, ekuziqhelelaniseni ngendlela enganelisiyo kumasiko nezithethe nobulungisa baseNtshona, sikhangele ukuqinisekisa ubuni baso ngokuqwalasela kwixesha laso elidlulileyo, sime kwinkcochoyi yokuhlanganisa inkcaso yokuphathwa ngabantu abamhlophe kunye nokwakha intlalo, inkululeko yepolitiki nenkolo yesithanga saseNtshona.

UNontsizi Mgqwetho

UNontsizi Mgqwetho ebehlala kwiGoldfields zaseWitwatersrand eMzantsi Afrika, kodwa akazange ayilibale imvela phi yakhe yasemaphandleni phesheya kwenciba, nakumaxesha angaphambili olonwabo apho ubukhosi bamaXhosa obuzimeleyo babukhululekile kwingcinezelo yabebala. Kwisithuba esingangeminyaka elishumi, ukususela ngo1920 ukuya ku1929, wabhala izibongo kwiphephandaba laseRhawutini Umthetheli wa Bantu, Nguye kuphela umntu wokuqala oyimbongi yasetyhini ukuvelisa umsebenzi onobutyebi kwisiXhosa.

Ngaphandle koku kuvelisiweyo kule mibhalo kuncinane kakhulu okwaziwayo ngobomi bakhe. Nge23 kaOkthobha 1920 wayevutha embokweni liqhayiya, umfutho emele izibongo zabasetyhini. Wayethumela imibongo rhoqo kweliphephandaba kwisithuba seminyaka emithathu ukusuka ku1924 ukuya ku1926. ukhe waphumla iminyaka emibini de imibongo yakhe emibini yokugqibela yaphuma ngoDisemba ka1928 nangoJanuwari ka1929. Waze wanyamalala kwisithukuthezi senzolo awayeqhamke kuyo.

Emva koko azange kuvakalento ngakwicala lakhe, kodwa ezi zibongo wazishiyayo zakhawuleza zamenza omnye wamagcisa amakhulu oncwadi akhe abhala isiXhosa. ulilizwi labasetyhini ababandezelekileyo omelana nolawulo ngamadoda, ukhokhelo olungahambeli ndawo, ukungazibandakanyi kwabantsundu, nomnqweno wokubukula nokohluka kwabebala, ukugxojwa kwezoqoqosho kunye nembali eyintlekele yenkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba yokuhluthwa komhlaba nenkcubeko.

Amandla akhe uwafumana kunqulo olulolwakhe lwalowo unguThixo wamakrestu, nomama Afrika, nanjengempelesi yentsana zakhe, abo, agxininisa ukuba akudingeki baphendule kwizicelo zokubuya kwakhe  njengokuba engazange ahambe, wayexhathise kubantu bakhe abamphoxayo.

Njengokuba imbongi kwakuhlala iyindoda, UNontsizi wayengavinjwa umboko wokubonga esidlangalaleni angakwazi ukunika intlonipho inkosi.  Iphephandaba labeka izibongo zakhe ngokusesikweni laze lamnika itikiti lokungena kumphakathi owaphika isithethe.  Wayekhululekile ukubonakali/ukuvelisa ilizwi lembongi, wathathe ilungelo lembongi lokugxeka iinkokheli. Njengembongi wayegxile kwimikhuba yoluntu, ejonge ukubumba indlela yokuziphatha kwabantu nokuhlanganisa izenzo zabo.