Oliver Tambo

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Oliver Tambo

U-Oliver Reginald Kaizana Tambo (27 Oktobha 1917 – 24 uEpreli 1993) ngomnye wabongameli bombutho kaKhongolose, i-African National Congress (i-ANC). Wongamela i-ANC (1967 - 1991) emva kokuba ivalwe umlomo eMzantsi Afrika ngexesha localucalulo.

Obomi bakwangoko[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UTambo wazalwa nge-27 ka-Okthobha ngo-1917 kwilali yaseNkantolo eBizana; empuma Pondoland kwindawo ngoku ebizwa iMpuma Kapa. Ilali uTambo azalelwa kuyo yenziwa uninzi lwabalimi. [Uyathethisa] Utata wakhe, uMzimeni Tambo, wayengunyana womlimi kunye nomncedisi wentengiso kwivenkile yokuthengisa yendawo. UMzimeni wayenabafazi abane nabantwana abalishumi, bonke bengafundanga. Umama kaOliver, unkosikazi wesithathu waseMzimeni, wabizwa ngokuba nguJulia. [1] UTambo wayevela kwintsapho ezinzileyo apho abantwana bakayise banemfundo elungileyo. Waye waya kwizikolo zama-Anglican kunye nezabe-Methodist, kuquka ne-Holy Cross kwisikolo sobufundisi kunye nomntakwabo ngo-Epreli 1928. Emva kweminyaka emihlanu e-Holy Cross, uTambo wagqwesa kwizifundo zakhe kwaye wathuthela eSt Peter eRhawutini. UTambo waphumelela ngo-1938 njengomnye wabafundi abagqwesileyo. Emva koku, uTambo wamkelwa kwiDyunivesithi yaseFort Hare kodwa ngo-1940 yena, kunye nabanye abaliqela kubandakanya uNelson Mandela, wagxothwa ngenxa yokuthatha inxaxheba kugwayimbo lwabafundi. Ngo-1942, uTambo wabuyela kwisikolo sakhe samabanga aphakamileyo eRhawutini ukuya kufundisa isayensi kunye nemathematics.

Ngo-1943, uTambo, uMandela kunye noWalter Sisulu baseka umbutho wolutsha we-ANC, iTambo yaba nguNobhala wayo wokuqala welizwe kunye nelungu leSigqeba seLizwe ngo-1948. Umbutho wolutsha waphakamisela utshintsho kwiqhinga lombutho olwa nobandlululo. Ngaphambili, i-ANC ibikade ifuna ukuqhubela phambili unobangela wayo ngezenzo ezinje ngezikhalazo kunye nemiboniso; Umbutho wolutsha waziva ukuba ezi zenzo azonelanga ekufezekiseni iinjongo zeqela kwaye zacetyiswa eyabo "Inkqubo yokuSebenza". Le nkqubo yaxhasa amaqhinga afana nokubhalwa kwabafana, ukungathobeli eluntwini, ukubetha, kunye nokungabambisani.

Ngo-1955, uTambo waba ngu-Nobhala-Jikelele we-ANC emva kokuvalwa umlomo kukaSisulu ngurhulumente woMzantsi Afrika phantsi komThetho wokuNgqinelana nobuKomanisi. Ngo-1958, waba ngu-Sekela Mongameli we-ANC kwaye ngonyaka ka-1959 wakhonzwa ngeminyaka emihlanu yokuvalwa umlomo ngurhulumente.

Ukuphila eLondon[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukuphendula oku, uTambo wathunyelwa phesheya yi-ANC ukuya kukhuthaza inkcaso yocalucalulo. Uzinze nosapho bakhe eMuswell Hill, emantla e-London, apho wayehlala khona de kwangowe-1990. Ukugxothwa kwakhe kuye kwamcaphukisa ukubona umkakhe nabantwana abathathu, kodwa unkosikazi wakhe u-Adelaide wayixhasa i-ANC ekhaya ngokuthatha amalungu e-ANC afika e-UK.[2]

Ngo-1967, uTambo waba ngu-Mongameli we-ANC, emva kokubulawa kweenkosi u-Albert Lutuli. Wayefuna ukugcina i-ANC kunye nangona wayegxothwe eMzantsi Afrika. Ngenxa yobunkokeli bakhe obunobuchule, wakwazi ukutsala abantu baseMzantsi Afrika abanetalente, omnye wabo yayinguThabo Mbeki.

Ngomhla wama-30 kuDisemba ngo-1979 eLusaka, eZambia, Tambo njengo-Mongameli kunye no-Alfred Nzo, owayengu-Nobhala-Jikelele we-ANC, badibana noTim Jenkin, uStephen Lee kunye no-Alex Moumbaris, amalungu e-ANC abaleka ekubanjisweni kwintolongo yasePhillip kgosi njengamabanjwa ezopolitiko. Ubukho babo babhengezwa ngokusesikweni yi-ANC ekuqaleni kukaJanuwari kwaye uTambo wabazisa kwinkomfa yeendaba nge-2 kaJanuwari 1980. [3]

Umsebenzi we-guerrilla[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

i zerhasi esebenzayo. Ekunye nabalingane bakhe uNelson Mandela, uJoe Slovo, kunye noWalter Sisulu, uTambo walathisa kwaye waququzelela uhlaselo oluninzi ngurhulumente wengcinezelo. [Ucaphula ulwazi] kudliwanondlebe luka-1985, uTambo wacatshulwa esithi, "Ngaphambili, besisithi i-ANC ngeke buthathe ngabom ubomi obungenatyala. Kodwa ngoku, xa sijonga okwenzekayo eMzantsi Afrika, kunzima ukuthi abahlali bangazukufa. "[4]

IKhomishini ye-Nkululeko noXolelwaniso emva kocalucalulo (i-TRC) ngo-1997-1998 yachonga uTambo njengomntu owanikezela ngemvume yokugqibela yibhombu yecawe yesitalato i-20 Meyi 1983, eyakhokelela [5]ekufeni kwabantu abayi-19 kwalimala abantu abayi-197-217. [6] Olo hlaselo lwenziwa iiyunithi ekhethekileyo ye-Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) ye-ANC, eyalelwa ngu-Aboobaker Ismail. Iiyunithi ezinje zazigunyazisiwe nguTambo njengoMongameli we-ANC ngo-1979. Ngexesha lolwaphulo olo, baxela uJoe Slovo njengenkosi yabasebenzi.

Ungenelelo lwe-ANC luthi le bhombu iphendula uqhankqalazo olunqumleze eMzantsi-Afrika lwangena eLesotho ngoDisemba ngo-1982 eyabulala abaxhasi be-42 kunye nabemi baseburhulumenteni, kunye nokubulawa kukaRuth Okokuqala, Itshantliziyo le-ANC kunye nenkosikazi kaJoe Slovo, eMaputo. Mozambikh. Ibango lokuba abali-11 kwabona bantu bangamaxhoba e-SADF yiyo loo nto bejolise emkhosini. Ummeli wezomthetho kwamanye amaxhoba aphikise ukuba njengoko bengabasebenzi bezolawulo, kubandakanya neefowuni kunye noochwephesha, abanakujongwa njengento esemthethweni ejolise kuyo.

Izenzo ezilishumi zeMK, kubandakanya u-Ismail, isicelo sokuxolelwa koku kunye nezinye iibhombu. Ezi zicelo zazichasene nezizathu ezahlukeneyo, kubandakanya nokuba yayihlaselo lwabanqolobi olungazinzanga kwezopolitiko. I-TRC ifumanise ukuba inani labemi bodwa xa kuthelekiswa nabezomkhosi babulewe alicacanga. Amanani amaPolisa oMzantsi Afrika abonise ukuba amalungu asixhenxe eSADF abulawa. Ikhomishini ifumanise ukuba ubuncinci abangama-84 kwabalimala yayingamalungu okanye abasebenzi beSADF. Uxolelo lwamkelwe yi-TRC. [7]

Ngo-1985, wanyulwa njengoMongameli we-ANC

Buyela eMzantsi Afrika[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ubuyele eMzantsi Afrika nge-13 kaDisemba 1990 emva kweminyaka engaphezu kwengama-30 ekuthinjweni,[8] [3]emva konyulwa njengo-Sihlalo kaZwelonke we-ANC kwinyanga yeKhala kwangalo nyaka. Ukwazile ukubuyela eMzantsi Afrika ngenxa yomthetho we-ANC. [2] Xa ebuyayo emva kwexesha lakhe ekuthinjweni wafumana inkxaso eninzi. Olunye lwale nkxaso luvela nakwiimbangi zakudala. [9] Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yokubetha kwakhe ngo-1989. Kwakunzima kuye ukufeza imisebenzi yakhe njengo-Mongameli we-ANC, ke ngo-1991 uNelson Mandela wathatha njengo-Mongameli we-ANC. Xa ehla njengo-Mongameli, ingqungquthela yamenzela isikhundla njengoSihlalo kaZwelonke. [9]

Ukufa[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Emva kwengxaki emva kokubethwa, uTambo wasweleka ngo-Epreli 24, ngo-1993 eneminyaka engama-75 ubudala. Ukufa kwakhe kwenzeka kwiintsuku ezili-14 emva kokubulawa kukaChris Hani kunye nonyaka omnye ngaphambi konyulo jikelele luka-1994 apho uNelson Mandela waba nguMongameli woMzantsi Afrika. UMandela, uThabo Mbeki kunye noWalter Sisulu baya kumngcwabo. UTambo wangcwatyelwa eBenoni, eGauteng.

Ubudlelwane bamanye amazwe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Umlo onamandla wokulwa nocalucalulo wazisa uTambo ukuba enze uthotho lobuhlobo obukhulu bamazwe. Ngo-1977, uTambo watyikitya isivumelwano sobumbano phakathi kwe-ANC kunye nomasipala: idolophu yase-Italy iRegio Emilia yayisisixeko sokuqala emhlabeni ukusayina isivumelwano sobumbano. [8] Esi yayisisiqalo sokuqonda okude okwazisa i-Italiya ukuba yenze umzamo kwizenzo zekhonkrithi zokuxhasa ilungelo lokuzimela kwabantu base-Afrika; Elinye lala manyathelo yayiyintlangano yeenqanawa ezinzileyo. Owokuqala, obizwa "uAmanda", wemka eGenova ngo-1980. [6]YayinguTambo ngokwakhe owacela uReggio Emilia ukuba enze iimedali zeMeditwalandwe, oyena mkhulu kwezona ntlonipho ze-ANC [6]

Imbeko[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ngo-2004, wavotwa ngenani lama-31 kwi-SABC3 enkulu yoMzantsi Afrika, [ecaphula] efumana amanqaku angaphantsi kwaH. F. Verwoerd, ngaphambi kokuba uSABC athathe isigqibo sokurhoxisa imijikelezo yokugqibela yokuvota. Isigqibo sokurhoxisa iziphumo besazisiwe sisibakala sokuba uninzi lwabantu abamnyama base Mzantsi zange bathathe inxaxheba kuvoto, kuba iSABC3 yayibeka ikakhulu kwizithethi zesiNgesi.

Ekupheleni kuka-2005, abapolitiki be-ANC babhengeza izicwangciso zokuthiya kwakhona i-Johannesburg International Airport emva kwakhe. Isindululo samkelwe kwaye umsitho wokuphinda ubizwe ngomhla wama-27 ku-Okthobha ka-2006. Urhulumente owayelawulwa yi-ANC wayebuye wathi igama lesikhululo iJan Smuts njengeSikhululo senqwelomoya saseRhawutini ngo-1994 ngezizathu zokuba izikhululo zeenqwelomoya zase Mzantsi Afrika zingabizwa ngamagama ezopolitiko.

Kukho ukuqunjelwa kwe-O.R. I-Tambo kwindawo yase-Albert Road Reconwabo Ground, Muswell Hill, ngaphandle kwe-Alexandra Park School. NgoJuni ngo-2013, isixeko saseRegio Emilia (e-Itali) sabhiyozela iTambo ngokudala ipaki enikezelwe kuMongameli we-African National Congress.

Indlu yakhe iku-51 Alexandra Park Road, Muswell Hill, London, yathengwa nguRhulumente waseMzantsi Afrika ngonyaka ka-2010 njengesikhumbuzo esenziwe ngembali kwaye ngoku inomfanekiso oqingqiweyo. [6]

Ingcwaba likaTambo labhengezwa njengendawo yeLifa leMveli kuZwelonke xa wasweleka kodwa waphulukana nale meko xa wasweleka umkakhe uAdelaide Tambo, wangcwatyelwa ecaleni kwakhe. Nangona kunjalo ingcwaba labo laphinda labhengezwa njenge-National Heritage ngo-Okthobha ka-2012. [5]

Ukuqukumbela imibhiyozo yeminyaka elikhulu yokuzalwa kukaTambo, isikhumbuzo sasibanjelwe kwiRegina Mundi Catholic Church eMoroka, eSoweto ngomhla wama-27 ku-Okthobha 2017. Esi siganeko sifanayo saphawula nakwinkulungwane yokupheliswa kwempi yomkhosi we-SS Mendi. Umsitho uxhaswe ngu-Ambesi Lindiwe Mabuza kunye no-Fr Lawrence Mduduzi Ndlovu, bekunye ne-Thabo Mbeki Foundation kunye ne-Oliver kunye ne-Adelaide Tambo Foundation. Iikwayala ezithatha inxaxheba yayingu-Imilonji ozitu Choral Society, i-Johannesburg Metro Police Choir kunye neKurhuleni Metro Police Choir. Owayecula ngalomhla yayinguSibongile Khumalo.

  1. https://www.sahistory.org.za/people/oliver-reginald-kaizana-tambo
  2. 2.0 2.1 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/oliver-tambo-the-exile-394806.html
  3. 3.0 3.1 https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/escape-pretoria-tim-jenkin
  4. https://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/escape-pretoria-tim-jenkin
  5. 5.0 5.1 http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/20/newsid_4326000/4326975.stm
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 http://www.justice.gov.za/trc/media/1997/9705/s970512a.htm
  7. http://www.justice.gov.za
  8. 8.0 8.1 https://www.deseret.com/1990/12/13/18895960/anc-leader-returns-to-s-africa-after-spending-30-years-in-exile
  9. 9.0 9.1 https://search.proquest.com/docview/109199697