EMonti

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eMonti (isiNgesi: East London, ngesiBhulu: Oos-Londen),[1] esi sisixeko esizinze phaya kunxweme lwakummzantsi-mpuma waseMzantsi Afrika, simi kuma-32.97°S nakuma-27.87°E[2] kwisixeko iBuffalo kwisixeko sikaMasipala waseBuffalo kwiPhondo laseMpuma Koloni. Isixeko sizinze phaya ngakunxweme lolwandle lwaseIndiya, ubukhulu becacala siphakathi komlambo iBuffalo nakumlambo iNahoon, kwangu nguwo owamkela iziko lemilambo kweli lizwe. Sithetha nje esi sixeko saseMonti sinoluntu olungaphaya kwama-267,000 kummamndla osisixekokazi.[3]

Imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

City Hall Oxford Street.jpg

uLieutenant John Bailie womkhosi waselwandle, omnye wabaphangi-mhlaba weminyaka yoo-1820, wahlola umlomo womlambo iBuffalo waza wafumana idolophu ngo-1836, isikhumbuzo seNduli esisisiBonakaliso sokukhumbula nokunika imbeko kwesi siganeko.[4]

Isixeko sakhiwa ngakumlambo eMzantsi Afrika kwaye sasisaya kwaziwa ngokokuba yiPort Rex. Oku kuzinza kunxweme lwaseNtshona kwaba yinkaba yeMonti, eyathi yakhuliswa de yaba kwizinga lesixeko ngokupheleleyo ngo-1914.

Ngeminyaka yokuqala kwiNkulungwane ye-19th iimfazwe ezazibanjwe phakathi kwabavukeli baseBritane kunye nabahlali bakule ngingqi ababengamaXhosa, isixeko saseMonti sasisebenza njengovimba oxhobisa imikhosi amakomkhulu emikhosi eyayikufuphi ne Qonce, eyayikude kangangamashumi amathathu eemayile. Isakhiwo somkhosi waseBritane, i-Fort Glamorgan, sakhiwa ekuNxweme lwaseMntla ngo-1847, saza sanikezelwa kiKoloni yaseKapa kwakuloo mnyaka mnye. Esi sakhiwo sesinye semingcelele yezakhiwo ezi lolu hlobo ezathi zakhiwa yiBritane, eziquka iFort Murray, iFort White, iFort Cox, iFort Hare kunye neFort Beaufort, kwingingqi eyayizinze umkhosi neyathi yabizwa ngokuba yiBritish Kaffraria.

Kwathi ngokuya kusakhiwa iziko elukunxweme bafika abavukeli beenzalelwane zale ngingqi, sele bequka nabavukeli baseJamani, uninzi lwabo ingamasoka. ngabo kaloku abafika bafaka amagama esiJamani kwinxalenye yeedolophu kule ngingqi yaseMonti amagama afana neCumakala kunye neBerlin. Unanamhla oku, iifani zamaJamani ezifana noo- Gehring, Salzwedel kunye noo-Peinke zisaxhaphakile eMonti, kodwa zona iinzalelwane zabavukeli zakhawuleza zatshintsha zaphila ubuNgesi.

Indawo eyakhelwa umkhosi ngakunxweme ekhoyo kungoku nje, kanye kumlomo womlambo iBuffalo, othungela kulwandle lwaseIndiya, yaqala ukusebenza ngo-1870. Ngo-1872, ikoloni yaseKapa, phantsi kweNkulumbusoyokuqala uJohn Molteno, wathi wawongwa ngesidanga sokuzimela geqe yiBritani. Lo rhulumente mtsha wathi wamanya indawo ezintathu zaseMonti ezazingabamelwane, iMonti, impuma yeMonti kunye nePanmure ngo-1873, zatsho zenza lo Masipala simbonayo ngoku, kwaye ngo-1876 yaqala yaba sisakhiwo kwingingqi yeendlela zikaloliwe, yaqala kunxweme lomlambo. Ngaxesha nye, yaqala yakha isakhiwo sesitishi seenqanawa nezikhephe. Esi sakhiwo sitsha saxesha ukwanda kwesi sixeko, satsho ngesixeko saseMonti, isixeko sanamhlanje esimbeje-mbeje nesiqaqambileyo. [5][6]

Ibhlorho elihlobo olulodwa ezibhlorho ezimbini ezibelekeneyo phezu komlambo iBuffalo yaaqgitywa ukwakhiwa ngo-1935 kwaye unanamhla oku, ikukuphela kwebhlorho elolu hlobo kuMzantsi afrika uphela. Ezona ndawo zimtsalane ngempucuko zibandakanya i ziko lemiboniso yezilwanyana nezinto zemveli eMonti ekulikhaya leecoelacanth, intlanzi yembali zamandulo, ekucingwa ukuba azisekho, zifumaneka ngqo eChalumna Mouth kufuphi naseMonti zifunyanwa ngabalobi ngo-1938, kunye nenqwaba yemifanekiso eqingqiweyo nekuyeyesikhumbuzo. Esi sixeko saziwa njengendawo yokuloba, kunjalo nje iindawo zokonwaba nekudadwa kuzo ziyinxalenye yeendawo ezakhe zantle apha kweli lizwe.

UbuRhulumente nezoPolitiko[tshintsha | edit source]

Ngo-1961, imimandla exhake iMonti yaamiselwa njengamaphandle abantu abamnyama kwabaseCiskei ngaseNtshona kwaza kwas eTranskei ngaseMpuma. Yazibona iMonti sele irhangqiwe macala onke ngaphandle kwaseMantla yaza yenza loo nto ukuba ingabinakuzinza ngokupheleleyo ngexesha lengcinezelo. Umhleli wephepha-ndaba laloo ngingqi, iDaily Dispatch, yayinguDonald Woods, owaphalaza imbali yokugetyengwa kukaSteve Biko, itshantlizyo lenkokheli yomanyano lwamaAfrika nombhali wencwadi esihloko sayo sithi I Write What I Like, egetyengwa ekwizandla zamapolisa okhuselo lwaseMzantsi Afrika eBhayi, kweyomMsintsi ngo-1977. Ibali likaDonald Woods lashicilelwa kumboniso bhanya-bhanya weHollywood othi Cry Freedom. Sithetha nje nanko umfanekiso oqingqiweyo kaBiko uthe ngcu unomtsalane ngaphandle kweholokazi lesixeko saseMonti.

Ixesha lokukwaywa koMzantsi Afrika lihlabathi olwathi lwalandela ngeminyaka yoo-1980s lwalwenzakalisa uqoqosho lwesitishi seenqanawa saseMonti. Uqoqosho olumandla lwakutsha nje kuleminyaka imbalwa igqithileyo, lusenziwa ngamaqumrhu afana noo-Daimler Chrysler, yaza loo nto yangunozala wokuphuhliswa nokukhuliswa nokuphuculwa kwesi sitishi seenqanawa kuquka nesemoto entsha.

Ngo-2000, iMonti yaba yinxalenye yeBuffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, umdibaniso wedolophu yaseQonce, iBhisho kunye noMdantsane kwaye inesihlalo kwi-Metro.

Uqoqosho[tshintsha | edit source]

Isikhululo seenqwelo-ntaka zaseMonti

iMonti iliziko loshishino lwesibini ukubalikhulu kweli Phondo. Ushishino lweemoto lungoyena mqeshi ukhonyayo. esona sityalo seDaimler sithe ngcu ecaleni kwesitishi seenqanawa, apho kwenziwa khona iMercedes-Benz nezinye iinqwelo-mafutha ezenzelwa ukuthengiswa kwalapha ekuhlaleni, nokuthunyelwa eMelika naseiBrazil. Aanye amashishini aquka impahla yokunxiba, iindwangu, amachiza, nokwenziwa kokutya.

Ukususela kwiminyaka yoo-1960 kude kuye kutsho kwiminyaka yoo-1990s, urhulumente weingcinezelo nocalu-calulo waloba ngokuveza irhafu ehamba nomvuzo ngeenjongo zokutsala oosomashishini kwinto eyayibizwa ngokuba ngoko ng[['amazwe abantu abamnyama abazimeleyo', kuquka elikufutshane iCiskei. Lwatsho lwavela macala uqoqosho kumazwe aye engomakhelwane afana neFort Jackson kunye naseDimbaza, lushiya iMonti iyodwa ngokufanelekileyo. Imisebenzi yombutho olwel yangelo xesha ayizange ibenakho ukwenza nto malunga nenkqubela ekwenzeni ubuhlobo obububo kwezemesebenzi. Ukwakhiwa kwesiseko kwezothutho kwaya kusiba kubi ngakumbi zaza neenzame eziyimisebenzi yawa phantis.

Ukukhuthaza ukonga eMonti, indawo yokuphuhlisa ushishino eMonti East London Industrial Development Zone (IDZ) yathi yafunyanwa eWest Bank ngo-2004, kufutshane nedolophu nesikhululo seenqwelo-moya. umhlaba ongangama-1500ha waveliswa, kwaye isiza sesinye samaziko ophuhliso amane emzantsi afrika.

Ezothutho eMonti zixhumana nazo zonke ezinye iindawo eMzantsi afrika. Umgaqo okumphakamo iN2 uxhumana neendlela ezinqumla kwesi sixeko zisiya ekapa neziya eDurban, ube okumphakamo weN6 udibana neMonti ngendlela eya kwisixeko saseBloemfontein. Isikhululo seenqwelo-moya saseMonti, esili-10 leekhilomitha ukusuka phakathi naphakathi kwisixeko saseMonti, luneenqwelo-moya ezihamba mihla le zisiya kuzo zonke izixeko zaseMzantsi Afrika.

Ezemidlalo[tshintsha | edit source]

iKhrikhethi ngumdlalo othandwa kakhuku apha eMonti. Icala lekhrikhethi elingumdibaniso webhoda/nekhrikhethi yephondo leMpuma Koloni laziwa ngokuba yiWarriors lilo elithabatha inxaxheba kukhuphiswano lwephondo olukwinqanaba eliphezulu. Owayesakuba yi-Proteas wicketkeeper uMark Boucher nekungoku nje ubambe iingxelo zovavanyo kumatyeli amaninzi ngokuchithwa yi-wicketkeeper ngokwesiphakamiso saseMonti. KwiStadium saseesikwipaki yase-Buffalo eMonti saasingatha umdlalo ngokhuphiswano lweICC indebe yecricket kwihlabathi ngo-2003 nakwimidlalo emibini ka2009 ye-League i-Indian Premier League.

Eminye imidlalo ebanjwayo apha iquka amanqindi, imountain biking, iskydiving, aeyeembaleki, umdyarho wamahashe nemmidlalo emininzi yamanzi efana nesurfing, ukuqubha, iscuba diving, ukuloba, ukudada ngesikhephe, kunye newindsurfing.

Utyelelo[tshintsha | edit source]

Ulwandle lwaseMonti

Iindawo zokutyelela ziquka: iYellowsands, iGlen Eden, iGonubie, iQueensbury Bay, iCintsa eNtshona naseMpuma Cintsa.

Iindawo ezinomtsalane[tshintsha | edit source]

  • Umzi wezilwanyana eMonti
  • Umzi waseMonti onezinto zembali nezinto ezonwabisayo
  • Inkwenkwezi Private Game Reserve
  • uMpongo Private Game Reserve
  • iYellow Sands Caravan Park

Iziphaluka nemozulu[tshintsha | edit source]

East London
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
69
 
26
18
 
 
92
 
26
19
 
 
105
 
25
18
 
 
83
 
24
15
 
 
52
 
23
13
 
 
40
 
21
11
 
 
47
 
21
10
 
 
78
 
21
11
 
 
80
 
21
12
 
 
102
 
22
14
 
 
110
 
23
16
 
 
63
 
25
17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SAWS

iMonti linemozulu eshushu (Köppen Cfa/Cfb), iqondo layo lifudumele njengakunxweme lwaseMonti. Nangona kungekho xesha lanyaka lunembalela apha, kubakho ukoma ebusika, kutsho kubekho intwasahlobo ne.....

  1. "http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176733/East-London". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176733/East-London. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  2. "South Africa Cities". Wwp.greenwichmeantime.com. 15 April 2011. http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/south-africa/cities.htm. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  3. [1]
  4. The Story of the British Settlers of 1820 in South Africa - H. E. Hockly (Juta & Co., 1948)
  5. Burman, Jose (1984). Early Railways at the Cape. Cape Town. Human & Rousseau, p.81. ISBN 0-7981-1760-5
  6. Bond J.: They were South Africans. London: Oxford University Press. 1956. Chapter 19, The Makers of Railways: John Molteno. p.170.