Steve Biko

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Stephen Bantu Biko
Umhla Wokuzalwa 18 EyoMnga 1946 eGinsberg, eMzantsi Afrika

Umhla Wokusweleka 12 EyoMsintsi 1977 (iminyaka eyi-30) ePitoli, eMzantsi Afrika

Umsebenzi Umntu ofak’isandla ekuchaseni ucalu-calulo (Anti-Apartheid Activist)

Imibutho South African Students' Organisation; Black People's Convention

Inkosikazi Ntsiki Mashalaba

Iqabane Mamphele Ramphele

Abantwana 5, bequka kunye noHlumelo Biko




Imvelaphi[tshintsha | edit source]

UBantu Stephen Biko (18 EyoMnga 1946 – 12 EyoMsintsi 1977) wayengomnye wabantu abafaka isandla ekuchaseni ucalu-calulo. Nje ngomthandi weAfrika kunye nomququzeleli wokuqinisekisa ukuba ubutyebi belizwe bufunyanwa ngumntu wonke, uBiko wayephambili kuphulo olwaluchasane nocalu-calulo lokuzingca ngobumnyama iBlack Consciousness Movement ngeminyaka yama-1960 ukuya kwiminyaka yama-1970. Iingcamango zakhe zazichazwe kuluhlu lwamanqaku ayepapashwe phantsi kwegama elinguFrank Talk.MATEBESE, NGETYI

Wakhulela kusapho oluhluphekileyo lwamaXhosa kwilokishi yase Ginsberg eMpuma Koloni. Ngo-1966 waqala izifundo zobu Gqirha kwiDyunivesithi yaseNatal apho waye wangena kumbutho wabafundi i-NUSAS . Ekulweni kwakhe ingcinezelo nempatho yabantu abamnyama, yaye yamphatha kakubi imeko yokuba iNUSAS kunye neminye imibutho eyayisilwa ingcinezelo yayilawulwa ngabeLungu ababelwela inkululeko, ingabo abaninzi kunabantu abamnyama, eyayingabona bantu bacinezelekileyo. Wayekholelwa ukuba, nangona ababeLungu babeneenjongo ezilungileyo, babengenakuze bayiqonde ngokupheleleyo intlungu yethu ngokuba babephela befuna ukulawula.(Gqomo and Ngqezana).

Wakha uluvo lokuba ukuba abantu abamnyama bafuna ukulwisana nogonyamelo lwabantu abamhlophe kufuneka bazimele ngokunokwabo, ngenxa yoluluvo wanqenqeza phambili ekwakhiweni kombutho iSouth African Students’ Organization (SASO) ngonyaka wama-1968. Ubulungu babuvumeleke kubantu “abamnyama” kuphela, eligama lalingabhekisi kubantu abathetha iiliwimi zesintu kuphela laliquka abantu bebala (Coloureds) kwakunye namaNdiya. Wayeyilumkele kakhulu into yokugcina abantu abamhlophe embuthweni, echasene nobuhlanga kwaye ekwanazo izihlobo nezinqanda-mathe zabelungu. Walixhasa elinyathelo urhulumente weNational Party ekuqaleni elibona elinyathelo lokwakhiwa kweSASO njengoloyiso lesiseko se-apateyiti socalu-calulo. Wayephembelelwa nguFranz Fanon kwakunye neAfrican-American Black Power.'Bonga Centwa


Ngokufumani ifuthe kuFrantz Fanon kunye nombutho iAfrican-American Black Power movement (waMandla wama-Afrika aseMelika), uBiko namaqabane akhe baphuhlisa ingcamango yeBlack Consciousness (yoKuvuleka Ingqondo ngoBumnyama), ngcamango leyo yayi yeyona ingcamango ingundoqo yombutho iSASO. Lo mbutho waququzelela isiphelo socalucalulo ukuze uMzantsi Afrika udlulele uye kwisigaba sonyulo esibandakanye wonke ummi kwakunye noqoqosho olugxile ekuxhamleni kwindyebo yelizwe. Lo mbutho waququzela iBlack Community Programmes (BCP) (Iinkqubo zoLuntu Olumnyama) kwaye begxile ekuphuhliseni nasephuhliseni ulwazi kubantu abamnyana ngokwasengqondweni. UBiko wayekholelwa ekubeni abantu abamnyama kufuneka bezahlukanise nayiphi imeko nengcamango yokuzijongela phantsi ngokohlanga, ngcamango leyo wayeyisebenzisa ukugqamisa intetha ethi “black is beautiful” (“ubumnyama buhle”). Ngonyaka wama-1972, wayengomnye wabaqulunqi bombutho iBlack People’s Convention (BPC) (Ingqun'Italic textBold textgquthela yaBantu Abamnyama) ukuphakamisa ingcamango yeBlack Consciousness (Ukuvuleka Ingqondo ngoBumnyama) kuluntu jikelele. [Zikho Dana]


Iingoma ezininzi nemisebenzi yezobugcisa zazingaye,kanajalo kwakukho ukungavisisani malunga nokuba ilifa lakhe lezopolitiko lizophathwa ngubani. Ngexesha lakhe urhulumente wayerhanela ukuba wayengabafuni abamhlophe, amanye wamatshantliziyo awayesilwa norhulumente wocalucalulo ayemtyhola ngokucalula ngesini, wayegxekwa nangamalungu e-African racial nationalism ngokuzimanya namaKhaladi kunye namaNdiya. Nongona kunjalo, uBiko wabangomnye wamagorha okuqala omzabalazo olwisana norhumente wocalucalulo futhi ubonwa njenge tshantliziyo lomzabalazo kunye nomsunguli we-Black Consciousness


Imbali ngobom bakhe[tshintsha | edit source]

Ekuqaleni kobomi bakhe: 1946-66[tshintsha | edit source]

UBantu Stephen Biko walibona ilanga ngomhla we-18 kweyoMnga ngonyaka ka-1946, wazalelwa endlini kumzi kamakhulu wakhe eTarkastad eMpuma Koloni. [Jolisa and Mxhasi]


Ngumntana wasithathu kwinzala kaMzingaye Matthew Biko noAlice Mamcete Biko, uzalwa noBukelwa udade wabo omkhulu nomkhulwa wakhe uKhaya, alekelwe ngudade wabo uNobandile. Abazali bakhe bazimanya ngeqhina lomtshato kwidolophu yaseSada, apho uyise wayexelenga njengepolisa. UMzingaye watshintshelwa kwiidolophu ezinintsi ngokomsebenzi, eziquka iKomani, iBhayi, iFort Cox waze wagqibela ngokuzinza kwidolophu yaseQonce apho yena noAlice bahlala kwilokishi yaseGinsberg. Le lokishi yayihlala abantu abangapha kwama-800, apho iintsapho ezilinganiselwa kwisine zazisabelana ngendlu yangasese enye kunye nomthombo wamanzi omnye. Kule lokishi kwakuhlala iintlanga ezahlukeneyo eziquka abantu abamnyama kunye namakhaladi apho kwakuthethwa iilwimi ezifana nesiXhosa, isiBhulu kunye nesiNgesi.[Matinjwa & Sandi]


Emva kokuba erhoxile emsebenzini wobupolisa,uMzinganye uye wasebenza njengo klakhi kumhlaba waseQonce kwiOffice yeNative Affairs,abe kwangelithuba esenza izifundo zakhe kwezomthetho kwiUniversity of South Africa.U-Alice waqala wasebenza njengo mncedi kwizindlu zabantu abamhlophe ababehlala kwingingqi yakhe waze wabangumpheki eGrey Hospital kwidolophu yaseQonce.Ngokwamazwi kadadewakhe, iimeko ezinzima umama kaBiko wayephangela phantsi kwazo zabangela uBiko aqale ezopolitiko. Igama likaBiko alinikiweyo elithi ‘Bantu’, linentsingiselo ethi, “Abantu”.UBiko elingama lakhe walinika intsingiselo yentetho ethi, “umntu ngumntu ngabantu”.(Kondile & Mangele)

Nanjengomntana wathiywa isiteketiso esingu Goofy kwakunye nesinguXwaku-Xwaku, ezi ziteketiso zasisuka kwinkangeleko yakhe engaqoqoqshekanga. Wayekhuliswa kwikhaya elikhonza e- Anglican Christian Faith. Ngo 1950 u Biko eneminyaka emine utata wakhe wagula waza wathunyeliswa esibhedlele e St. Mattew’s Hospital Hospital, e Keiskammahoek, waze wasweleka, yaze lonto yabangela ukuba usapho luxhomekeke kumrholo kamama. TETANI TISANI


UBiko wagqwesa kwizifundo zezibalo kunye nesiNgesi kwaye waphumelela phezulu kwiimviwo zakhe. Ngonyaka ka-1964 umphakathi waseGinsberg wamnika imali yokufunda (ibhasari) yokuba ahlangane nomntakwabo uKhaya njengomfundi e[Lovedale|https://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/lovedalemissiona00stew], [kwisikolo esikhankanyiweyo eDikeni, eMpuma-koloni|https://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/lovedalemissiona00stew]. Phakathi kweenyanga ezintathu zokufika kukaSteve, uKhaya watyholwa ngokuba nonxibelelwano kuPoqo, iphiko elixhobileyo le[Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)|http://www.einjahr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/maaba_PanAfricanArchives.pdf], http://www.einjahr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/maaba_PanAfricanArchives.pdf elathi lavalwa ngurhulumente. Bobabini uKhaya noSteve babe banjiwe kwaye baxoxiswa ngamapolisa; lowo wangaphambili wayegwetyiwe, waze wahlawulwa kwisibheno. Akukho bungqina obucacileyo bonxibelelwano kukaSteve kuPoqo obaveliswayo, kodwa wagxothwa eLovedale.(Nkunzi and Nkunzi)

Ukuqala ngonyaka wama-164-1965 uBiko wafunda eSt.Francis College isikolo sokubhoda samaCatolika eMariannhill eNatal.Esisikolo sasivame njengesikolo esinezopolitiko olukhululekileyo, uBiko walifumana khona ulwazi lwakhe lwezopolitiko. Waye wanomdla Kanye ekubhukuqweni korhulumente wobukholoniyali begcuntswana labantu abamhlophe ze kumiselwe urhulumente ozakumela abantu abamnyama abasisininzi kweli. Phakathi kwenkokheli ezazichasene nobukholoniyali ezathi zabangamaqhawe kaBiko ngelixesha yayingo Ahmed Ben Bella waseAlgeria noJaramogi Oginga Odinga waseKenya.