Steve Biko

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Stephen Bantu Biko
Umhla Wokuzalwa 18 EyoMnga 1946 eGinsberg, eMzantsi Afrika

Umhla Wokusweleka 12 EyoMsintsi 1977 (iminyaka eyi-30) ePitoli, eMzantsi Afrika

Umsebenzi Umntu ofak’isandla ekuchaseni ucalu-calulo (Anti-Apartheid Activist)

Imibutho South African Students' Organisation; Black People's Convention

Inkosikazi Ntsiki Mashalaba

Iqabane Mamphele Ramphele

Abantwana 5, bequka kunye noHlumelo Biko



UBantu Stephen Biko (18 EyoMnga 1946 – 12 EyoMsintsi 1977) wayengomnye wabantu abafaka isandla ekuchaseni ucalu-calulo. Nje ngomthandi weAfrika kunye nomququzeleli wokuqinisekisa ukuba ubutyebi belizwe bufunyanwa ngumntu wonke, uBiko wayephambili kuphulo olwaluchasane nocalu-calulo lokuzingca ngobumnyama iBlack Consciousness Movement ngeminyaka yama-1960 ukuya kwiminyaka yama-1970. Iingcamango zakhe zazichazwe kuluhlu lwamanqaku ayepapashwe phantsi kwegama elingu "Frank Talk" [1]

Imvelaphi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Wakhulela kusapho oluhluphekileyo lwamaXhosa kwilokishi yase Ginsberg eMpuma Koloni. Ngonyaka ka-1966 waqala izifundo zobu Gqirha kwiDyunivesithi yaseNatal apho waye wangena kumbutho wabafundi i-NUSAS . Ekulweni kwakhe ingcinezelo nempatho yabantu abamnyama, yaye yamphatha kakubi imeko yokuba iNUSAS kunye neminye imibutho eyayisilwa ingcinezelo yayilawulwa ngabantu abamhlophe ababelwela inkululeko, ingabo abaninzi kunabantu abamnyama, eyayingabona bantu bacinezelekileyo. Wayekholelwa ukuba, nangona abantu abamhlophe babeneenjongo ezilungileyo, babengenakuze bayiqonde ngokupheleleyo intlungu yethu ngokuba babephela befuna ukulawula. [2].

Wakha uluvo lokuba ukuba abantu abamnyama bafuna ukulwisana nogonyamelo lwabantu abamhlophe kufuneka bazimele ngokunokwabo, ngenxa yoluluvo wanqenqeza phambili ekwakhiweni kombutho iSouth African Students’ Organization (SASO) ngonyaka wama-1968. Ubulungu babuvumeleke kubantu “abamnyama” kuphela, eligama lalingabhekisi kubantu abathetha iiliwimi zesintu kuphela laliquka abantu bebala (Coloureds) kwakunye namaNdiya. Wayeyilumkele kakhulu into yokugcina abantu abamhlophe embuthweni, echasene nobuhlanga kwaye ekwanazo izihlobo nezinqanda-mathe zabelungu. Walixhasa elinyathelo urhulumente weNational Party ekuqaleni elibona elinyathelo lokwakhiwa kweSASO njengoloyiso lesiseko se-apateyiti socalu-calulo. Wayephembelelwa nguFranz Fanon kwakunye neAfrican-American Black Power. [3]

Ngokufumani ifuthe kuFrantz Fanon kunye nombutho iAfrican-American Black Power movement (waMandla wama-Afrika aseMelika), uBiko namaqabane akhe baphuhlisa ingcamango yeBlack Consciousness (yoKuvuleka Ingqondo ngoBumnyama), ngcamango leyo yayi yeyona ingcamango ingundoqo yombutho iSASO. Lo mbutho waququzelela isiphelo socalucalulo ukuze uMzantsi Afrika udlulele uye kwisigaba sonyulo esibandakanye wonke ummi kwakunye noqoqosho olugxile ekuxhamleni kwindyebo yelizwe. Lo mbutho waququzela iBlack Community Programmes (BCP) (Iinkqubo zoLuntu Olumnyama) kwaye begxile ekuphuhliseni nasephuhliseni ulwazi kubantu abamnyana ngokwasengqondweni. UBiko wayekholelwa ekubeni abantu abamnyama kufuneka bezahlukanise nayiphi imeko nengcamango yokuzijongela phantsi ngokohlanga, ngcamango leyo wayeyisebenzisa ukugqamisa intetha ethi “black is beautiful” (“ubumnyama buhle”). Ngonyaka wama-1972, wayengomnye wabaqulunqi bombutho iBlack People’s Convention (BPC) (Ingqun gquthela yaBantu Abamnyama) ukuphakamisa ingcamango yeBlack Consciousness (Ukuvuleka Ingqondo ngoBumnyama) kuluntu jikelele. [4]

Iingoma ezininzi nemisebenzi yezobugcisa zazingaye,kanajalo kwakukho ukungavisisani malunga nokuba ilifa lakhe lezopolitiko lizophathwa ngubani. Ngexesha lakhe urhulumente wayerhanela ukuba wayengabafuni abamhlophe, amanye wamatshantliziyo awayesilwa norhulumente wocalucalulo ayemtyhola ngokucalula ngesini, wayegxekwa nangamalungu e-African racial nationalism ngokuzimanya namaKhaladi kunye namaNdiya. Nongona kunjalo, uBiko wabangomnye wamagorha okuqala omzabalazo olwisana norhumente wocalucalulo futhi ubonwa njenge tshantliziyo lomzabalazo kunye nomsunguli we-Black Consciousness

Imbali ngobom bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ekuqaleni kobomi bakhe: 1946-66[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UBantu Stephen Biko walibona ilanga ngomhla we-18 kweyoMnga ngonyaka ka-1946, wazalelwa endlini kumzi kamakhulu wakhe eTarkastad eMpuma Koloni. [5]

Ngumntana wesithathu kwinzala kaMzingaye Matthew Biko noAlice Mamcete Biko, uzalwa noBukelwa udade wabo omkhulu nomkhulwa wakhe uKhaya, alekelwe ngudade wabo uNobandile. Abazali bakhe bazimanya ngeqhina lomtshato kwidolophu yaseSada, apho uyise wayesebenza njengepolisa. UMzingaye watshintshelwa kwiidolophu ezininzi ngokomsebenzi, eziquka iKomani, iBhayi, iFort Cox waze wagqibela ngokuzinza kwidolophu yaseQonce apho yena noAlice bahlala kwilokishi yaseGinsberg. Le lokishi yayihlala abantu abangapha kwama-800, apho iintsapho ezilinganiselwa kwisine zazisabelana ngendlu yangasese enye kunye nomthombo wamanzi omnye. Kule lokishi kwakuhlala iintlanga ezahlukeneyo eziquka abantu abamnyama kunye namakhaladi apho kwakuthethwa iilwimi ezifana nesiXhosa, isiBhulu kunye nesiNgesi. (Matinjwa & Sandi)

Emva kokuba erhoxile emsebenzini wobupolisa,uMzinganye uye wasebenza njengo klakhi kumhlaba waseQonce kwiofisi yeNative Affairs,abe kwangelithuba esenza izifundo zakhe kwezomthetho kwiUniversity of South Africa.U-Alice waqala wasebenza njengo mncedi kwizindlu zabantu abamhlophe ababehlala kwingingqi yakhe waze wabangumpheki eGrey Hospital kwidolophu yaseQonce.Ngokwamazwi kadadewakhe, iimeko ezinzima umama kaBiko wayephangela phantsi kwazo zabangela uBiko aqale ezopolitiko. Igama likaBiko alinikiweyo elithi ‘Bantu’, linentsingiselo ethi, “Abantu”.UBiko elingama lakhe walinika intsingiselo yentetho ethi, “umntu ngumntu ngabantu”. [6]

Nanjengomntana wathiywa isiteketiso esingu Goofy kwakunye nesinguXwaku-Xwaku, ezi ziteketiso zazisuka kwinkangeleko yakhe engaqoqoqshekanga. Wayekhuliswa kwikhaya elikhonza e- Anglican Christian Faith. Ngonyaka ka-1950 uBiko eneminyaka emine utata wakhe wagula waza wathunyelwa esibhedlele i St. Mattew’s Hospital Hospital, e Keiskammahoek, waze wasweleka, yaze lonto yabangela ukuba usapho luxhomekeke kumrholo kamama. [7]

UBiko wagqwesa kwizifundo zezibalo kunye nesiNgesi kwaye waphumelela phezulu kwiimviwo zakhe. Ngonyaka ka-1964 umphakathi waseGinsberg wamnika imali yokufunda (ibhasari) yokuba ahlangane nomntakwabo uKhaya njengomfundi e[Lovedale|https://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/lovedalemissiona00stew], [kwisikolo esikhankanyiweyo eDikeni, eMpuma-koloni|https://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/lovedalemissiona00stew]. Phakathi kweenyanga ezintathu zokufika kukaSteve, uKhaya watyholwa ngokuba nonxibelelwano kuPoqo, iphiko elixhobileyo le[Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)|http://www.einjahr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/maaba_PanAfricanArchives.pdf], http://www.einjahr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/maaba_PanAfricanArchives.pdf elathi lavalwa ngurhulumente. Bobabini uKhaya noSteve babe banjiwe kwaye baxoxiswa ngamapolisa; lowo wangaphambili wayegwetyiwe, waze wahlawulwa kwisibheno. Akukho bungqina obucacileyo bonxibelelwano kukaSteve kuPoqo obaveliswayo, kodwa wagxothwa eLovedale. [8]

Ukusukela ngonyaka ka-1964 ukuya kowe-1965, uBiko wafunda eSt. Francis College, isikolo samaKatolika e-Mariannhill, Natali. Le kholeji yayinenkcubeko yezopolitiko eyikhululekileyo, kwaye uBiko wakhulisa ukuqonda kwakhe kwezopolitiko apho. [26] Waba nomdla ngokukodwa endaweni yokutshintshwa korhulumente wocalu-calulo eMzantsi Afrika kunye nolawulo olwalumela uninzi lwabantsundu kweli lizwe. [27] Phakathi kweenkokheli ezichasene nobukoloniyali ezazingamagorha kaBiko ngeli xesha yayinguAhrah Ben Bella wase-Algeria noJaramogi Oginga Odinga wase [Kenya]. [27] Emva kwexesha wathi uninzi lwe "politicos" kusapho lwakhe babenovelwano kwi-PAC, eyayineengcinga ezichasene nobukomanisi kunye nezobuhlanga zaseAfrika. UBiko ukuthandile oko wakuchaza njenge "mbutho olunge kakhulu" wePAC kunye nenkalipho yamalungu alo amaninzi, kodwa wahlala engenantlonelo yindlela yakhe yokucalucalulwa ngokobuhlanga, ekholelwa ukuba amalungu awo onke amaqela obuhlanga kufuneka amanyane nxamnye norhulumente. [28] NgoDisemba ka-1964, waya eZwelitsha kumsitho wolwaluko, ebonisa uphawu lwenguquko yakhe yokuba ngumfana ukuya ekubeni yindoda.


Inkuthazo yokuqala yabafundi: 1966-1968[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ekuqaleni u-Biko wayenomdla wokufunda ngezomthetho eyunivesithi, kodwa uninzi lwabo babemngqongile bayijongela phantsi lento, bekholelwa ukuba umthetho udibene kakhulu nokulwa kwezopolitiko. Endaweni yokuba bamkhuthaze ukuba afunde ngezomthetho bamxelela ukuba makafundele ubugqirha, kuba babecinga ukuba sesona sihloko esinemisebenzi engcono. [30] Waye wafumana isixhaso semfundo, [30] kwathi ngonyaka we-1966 wangena kwicandelo "elingelolaseYurophu" kwiYunivesithi yaseNatal Medical School eWentworth, ilokishi yaseThekwini. [31] Apho, wazibandakanya nento eyimbali yakhe u-Xolela Mangcu awayibiza ngokuba "liqela elingaqhelekanga nelinomdla weqela labafundi" abavela eMzantsi Afrika; [32] uninzi lwabo xa kuhamba ixesha babamba iindima ezibalaseleyo ngexesha langaphambi kocalulo. [33] Ukuphela kweminyaka yo-1960 ibiyintsomi yeepolitiki yezomfundi eguqukayo kwihlabathi liphela, njengoko kubonakaliswa kuqhanqalazo luka-1968, [34] uBiko wayenomdla wokuzibandakanya kule ndawo. [35] Kungekudala emva kokuba efikile eyunivesithi, wanyulwa kwiBhunga elimele abafundi (i-SRC). [36]


IYunivesithi yase-SRC yayidibene noManyano lwaBafundi beSizwe (i-NUSAS). [37] I-NUSAS yathatha intlungu zokuhlakulela ubuhlanga obuninzi kodwa yahlala ilawulwa abamhlophe kuba uninzi lwabafundi base Mzantsi Afrika babevela kwilizwe elincinci labamhlophe. [38] Njengoko uClive Nettleton, inkokeli emhlophe ye-NUSAS ibeka: "Eyona nto ibalulekileyo yile nto kukuba i-NUSAS yasekwa ngephulo elimhlophe, ixhaswa ngemali emhlophe kwaye ibonakalisa izimvo zesininzi samalungu ayo amhlophe". I-NUSAS iluchasile ngokusemthethweni ucalucalulo, kodwa yamodareyitha inkcaso yayo ukuze kugcinwe inkxaso yabafundi abamhlophe abalondolozekayo. [40] UBiko kunye namanye amalungu amnyama ase-NUSAS ase-Afrika babenexhala xa iququzelela amaqela kwimizi emhlophe, apho abantu abamnyama babengavunyelwa ukuba bangene. [41] NgoJulayi ngo-1967, inkomfa ye-NUSAS ibibanjelwe kwiYunivesithi iRhodes eGrahamstown; emva kokuba abafundi befikile, bafumanisa ukuba indawo yokulala yayilungiselelwe abathunywa abamhlophe nabamaNdiya kodwa hayi amaAfrika amnyama, ababexelelwe ukuba banokulala kwicawa yasekuhlaleni. UBiko kunye nabanye abathunywa abamnyama baseAfrika baphume kule nkomfa benomsindo. U-Biko ngokuhamba kwexesha uxele ukuba lo msitho wamnyanzela ukuba aqwalasele kwakhona inkolelo yakhe kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zokulwa ubuhlanga kwezopolitiki: [43]

Ukusekwa koMbutho waBafundi waseMzantsi Afrika: 1968-1972[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukuphuhliswa kwe-SASO[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Emva kwenkomfa ye-NUSAS yango-1968 eRhawutini, uninzi lwamalungu alo aye kwinkomfa kaJulayi ngo-1968 yeYunivesithi iChristian Movement eStutterheim. Apho, amalungu amnyama ase-Afrika agqibe kwelokuba abambe inkomfa kaDisemba yokuxoxa malunga nokusekwa kweqela labafundi abamnyama elizimeleyo. [45] Umbutho wabafundi baseMzantsi Afrika (SASO) wamiselwa ngokusesikweni kwinkomfa yeKhala ngo-1969 kwiDyunivesithi yaseMantla; Apho, umgaqo-siseko weqela kunye neqonga lomgaqo-nkqubo osisiseko zamkelwa. [46] Eyona nto kugxilwe kuyo liqela lokudibana konxibelelwano phakathi kwamaziko emisebenzi yabafundi abamnyama, kubandakanya nemidlalo, imisebenzi yenkcubeko, kukhuphiswano lokuphikisana. [47] Nangona uBiko wadlala indima enkulu ekudalweni kwe-SASO, wafuna iprofayile yoluntu ephantsi ngexesha lokuqala kwayo, ekholelwa ukuba oku kuya kulomeleza inqanaba lesibini lobunkokheli, njengo-ally Barney Pityana. [48] Nangona kunjalo, wanyulwa njengo-Mongameli wokuqala we-SASO; UPat Matshaka wanyulwa njenge-Mongameli kunye no-Wuila Mashalaba njengo-Nobhala. [49] EThekwini kwaba yindawo yayo yedolophu eyintloko.

Izalathiso[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. Woods 1978, p. 49; Wilson 2012, p. 18; Hill 2015, p. xxi.
  2. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 18; Hill 2015, p. xxi.
  3. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 18; Hill 2015, p. xxi.
  4. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 19; Mangcu 2014, p. 89.
  5. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 19.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Wilson 2012, p. 20.
  7. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 235.
  8. ^ Wilson 2012, pp. 20, 22.
  9. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Mangcu 2014, p. 88.
  10. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 19; Mangcu 2014, p. 88.
  11. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 20.
  12. ^ Cock 1989, p. 3.
  13. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 18.
  14. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 32.
  15. ^ Woods 1978, p. 96; Wilson 2012, p. 19.
  16. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 19; Mangcu 2014, p. 88.
  17. ^ Woods 1978, p. 49; Smit 1995, p. 18; Mangcu 2014, pp. 97–98.
  18. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 98.
  19. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 22; Mangcu 2014, pp. 100–101.
  20. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 102.
  21. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 23; Mangcu 2014, pp. 104–105.
  22. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, pp. 23, 27; Mangcu 2014, p. 106; Hill 2015, p. xxi.
  23. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 23; Mangcu 2014, p. 107.
  1. Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 28.
  2. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Woods 1978, p. 49; Wilson 2012, pp. 28–29; Mangcu 2014, p. 113.
  3. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 115.
  4. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 116.
  5. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 150.
  6. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 30.
  7. ^ Smit 1995, p. 18; Mangcu 2014, p. 117.
  8. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 117.
  9. ^ Woods 1978, p. 31.
  10. ^ Woods 1978, p. 32.
  11. ^ Mangcu 2014, p. 126.
  12. ^ Woods 1978, p. 117.
  13. ^ Woods 1978, p. 117; Wilson 2012, pp. 30–31; Mangcu 2014, pp. 123–125.
  14. ^ Wilson 2012, p. 31.
  15. ^ Woods 1978, pp. 153–154.
  16. ^ Woods 1978, pp. 118–119; Mangcu 2014, pp. 157–159.
  17. ^ Woods 1978, p. 119; Wilson 2012, p. 36; Macqueen 2013, p. 367; Mangcu 2014, p. 169.
  18. ^ Mangcu 2014, pp. 169, 170.
  19. ^ Woods 1978, p. 33.
  20. ^ Woods 1978, pp. 36, 120; Mangcu 2014, p. 169.
  21. ^ Macqueen 2014, p. 512.
  22. ^ Marable & Joseph 2008, pp. ix–x.
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mngxitama, Alexander & Gibson 2008, p. 2.
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b Denis 2010, p. 166.
  25. ^ Jump up to:a b Mangcu 2014, p. 272.
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Ahluwalia & Zegeye 2001, p. 460.
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mangcu 2014, p. 278.
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b Mangcu 2014, pp. 43–44.
  29. ^ Woods 1978, p. 121.
  30. ^ Woods 1978, p. 126; Hill 2015, p. 1.
  31. ^ Macqueen 2013, p. 368; Mangcu 2014, pp. 178–181.
  32. ^ Woods 1978, p. 147; Mangcu 2014, p. 177.
  33. ^ Jump up to:a b Mangcu 2014, p. 170.
  34. ^ Woods 1978, p. 120; Mangcu 2014, p. 176.
  35. ^ Jump up to:a b Woods 1978, p. 120.
  36. ^ Woods 1978, p. 147.
  37. ^ Woods 1978, p. 119.
  38. ^ Woods 1978, p. 31; Macqueen 2013, p. 375.
  39. ^ Woods 1978, pp. 48–49.
  40. ^ Macqueen 2013, pp. 366–367; Hill 2015, p. 35.
  41. ^ Woods 1978, p. 36.
  42. ^ Woods 1978, p. 51.
  43. ^ Brown 2010, pp. 719–720.
  44. ^ Brown 2010, p. 721.
  45. ^ Brown 2010, p. 723.
  46. ^ Brown 2010, p. 722.
  47. ^ Brown 2010, pp. 724–727.
  48. ^ Macqueen 2013, p. 367.
  49. ^ Jump up to:a b Mangcu 2014, p. 204.


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