Life

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A newborn baby is an example of life

Ubomi ligama elingokuqhama nokwanda kwezidalwa eziphilayo ezinezimpawu, ubume bazo, indlela eziphila ngayo, nekuyiyo eyenza zahluke kwizinto ezingaphiliyo 

Igama lona ngokwalo lingabhekisa kumntu ophilayo okanye kwiinkqubo zemihla ngemihla ezithi ezi zidalwa ziphefumlayo zibe yinxalenye yazo. Eli gama lisenokubhekisa nakwixesha apho into leyo iphilayo ikwaziyo ukusebenza (njengaxa kuzalwa okanye kusifa umntu), imo apho into kufuneka izwelwe kodwa ibe kwaloo nto kufuneka ifile, okanye loo nto yenza okokuba eso sidalwa sikwaziyo ukuphefumla sibe siyaphila. 

Izifundo ngobomi kuthiwa zizifundo ze-bayoloji kwaye abantu abafunda ngobomi kuthiwa zii-biologists. Umda wobomi ngumyinge wobude bokuphila kweentlobo zezidalwa. Bonke ubomi obaziwayo emHlabeni buphila ngemitha nobushushus belanga. Ngaphandle kwamandla elanga, akukho bomi. Bonke ubomi emhlabeni busekwe kwi-Khemistri eyenziwe ngemidityaniso eyenza indibaniselwano ye-carbon, ebandakanya uthotho olude lwee-molecules olufana nee- proteins kunye nee-nucleic acid. Olu thotho lwezi molecules ke lujijelwa ngamanzi lungaphakathi ezikhumbeni ukuze lwenze ii-cells.  Oku ke kusenokuba yinyaniso okanye kungabikho njalo kwezinye iintlobo zezidalwa kweli hlabathi: Kunjalo kanye kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo emHlabeni kule mihla.

Isishwankathelo[tshintsha | edit source]

Izidalwa eziphilayo okanye eziphefumlayo zizizidalwa ezinkqubo yazo ivulelekileyo. Zisoloko zitshintsha, kuba zitshintshanisa izinto eziphila ngazo, kwanolwazi ngendawo leyo ziphila kuyo.   Ziphila ngokuthi kusoloko kusenzeka i-metabolism, kugcinwe ubushushu bukwizinga elifunekayo, kulawulwe indlela yokukhula kweso sidalwa siphilayo, zize zikwazi ukusabela kwizinto ezizingqongileyo, ukanti zikwazi nokwanda ngokuvelisa ezinye izidalwa ezikwafana nazo. 

Ngokuchongwa ngokwendalo yazo, ziqhelana nemeko leyo ezidalelwe ukuba ziphile kuyo nezizululwana ngezizukulwana zazo. Kwizidalwa ezininzi ubomi bazo bungaxelwa ngeendlela ezininzi. Zininzi ke iindlela zobomi ezinokufumaneka apha emHlabeni. Iimpawu ezixhaphakileyo kwezi zidalwa zizityalo, izilwanyana, i-fungi, ii-protists, i-archaea, kunye ne-bacteria, zonke ke zinee-cellular eyenziwe nge-carbon kunye namanzi kwaye ziqokolelwe ngendlela ebubuxhakaxhaka bee-genes ezithwele iimpawu zofuzo. 

Okwangoku, isengumHlaba kuphela iplanethi  esifumana kuyo iinkcukacha ngolu lwazo. Umbuzo wokokuba ingaba kukho bomi bukhoyo apha kweli hlabathi, usengumbuzo ovulelekileyo nosalindeleke ukuba uphendulwe ngenye imini.   Kwakukhe kwakho umbono wokuba kukho ubomi kwenye indawo kwakweli hlabathi siphila kulo.   kodwa ke akukabikho bungqina boko okwangoku. Obono bungqina busafumanekayo malunga nobomi obungaphandle komhlaba bobee-nucleic acids ezithe zafunyanwa kwiintlobo ezithile ze-  meteorites.

Inkcazo ngobomi[tshintsha | edit source]

Inkcazo enye ngobomi ibizwa ngokuba yi-cell theory. I-cell theory inamanqaku amathathu esekelwe phezu kwawo: zonke izinto eziphilayo zenziwe ngee-cells. I-cell yeyonanto yakhe yancinane kwizinto eziphilayo enokwenza yonke into efuneka kubomi besidalwa. Zonke ii-cells kufuneka zibe zivela kwezo zakhe zakho  ngaphambili. 

Into kuthiwa iyaphila xa: 

  • ikhula,
  • isitya ukutya, isebenzisa ukutya ukuze ibenamandla, ikwazi nokuya endle, okanye ikwazi ukukhupha ukungcola okukuyo (jonha kwi-metabolism),
  • ishukuma: mayibe iyakwazi ukuzihambela, okanye ibenentshukumo ngaphakathi kuyo. 
  • iyazala, okanye iyakwazi ukwanda, enokoba kwenzeka oko ngokudibana kwenkunzi nemazi (kwanenye into ephilayo) okanye ukwanda nokuqhama okwenzeka ngaphandle kokudibana kwenkunzi nemazi, ngokuthi loo nto iphilayo izenzele ikopi yayo ngokwayo. 
  • Iyakwazi ukuxhumana nezinto eziyingqongileyo. 
  • imisebenzi

Nangona kunjalo, akuzizo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezikwaziyo ukuphila ngolu hlobo. 

  • Iintuku azikwazi ukuzala, nazo iimbovane azikwazi.
  • Iintsholongwane nee-spores azikwazi ukuphila de zibe iimeko ziyazivumela. 

Kodwa ke nangona kunjalo ziyangena kwiinkcazo ze-biochemical: zenziwe kwangohlobo olunye lweekhemikhali.

Inkcazo nge-thermodynamic yobomi yiyo nayiphi na inkqubo enokugcina i-entropy yayo ingaphantsi kowona myinge uphezulu (oko kudla ngokwenzeka nge-adaptation nange-mutations).

I-modern approach[tshintsha | edit source]

Inkcazo nge-modern yanikwa ngu-Humberto Maturana no-Francisco Varela ngo-1980, ngabo abanika igama elithi autopoiesis:

  1. Iziqhamo zee-components zazo
  2. Ukudibana kwee-components okufanelekileyo 
  3. Ukungcitywa nokulungiswa kwazo njengoko izizinto ezikhoyo. 

URoth uphawula enjenje, "Ngokufutshane, izinto eziphefumlayo ezaziwa ngokuba zii-organisms ziyazandisa zona ngokwazo, kwaye zizigcina zikwimeko elungileyo, okanye singathi zisebenzisa inkqubo eyi- 'autopoietic'". Le ndlela isebenzisa imibono ye-molecular biology kwaneenkqubo ezimibono yazo inge-science.

I-Gallery (Uvimba) wemifanekiso yezinto ezinobomi (eziphefumlayo)[tshintsha | edit source]


Amaphepha anxulumene neli. [tshintsha | edit source]

  • Ukufa
  • Ukuzala
  • I-Tree of life
  • IBayoloji
  • I-Evolution
  • I-Artificial life

Imisebenzi ekubhalwe kujongwe kuyo[tshintsha | edit source]