IBotswana

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IBotswana, ngokusesikweni IRiphabliki weBotswana (NgesiTswana nangesiKalanga: IHango yeBotswana), lilizwe alichukumisi ulwandle kuMazantsi eAfrika. IBotswana ithe tyaba ezweni layo, akukho ntaba ezininzi. Iipesenti ezingama-70 zayo ziNtlango yeKalahari . Unqamleze uMzantsi Afrika emazantsi, iNamibia entshona, kunye neZimbabwe empuma. Umda wayo neZambia emantla kufutshane nedolophu yeKazungula awuchazwanga kakuhle ngenxa yokuba uphakathi koMlambo iZambezi. Lo mda weZambia ziimitha ezimbalwa ezilikhulu ubude.[1]

Le lizwe linezigidi ezi-2.3, yaye lelinye lamazwe anabantu abambalwa emhlabeni kwikhilomitha nganye. Malunga neepesenti ezilishumi zabantu bahlala kwikomkhulu, iGaborone. IBotswana belelinye lamazwe ahlwempuzekileyo kwihlabathi: ngo-1960 umntu ngamnye ufumene iidola ezingama-60 ngonyaka qha. Namhlanje iBotswana inoqoqosho olukhula ngokukhawuleza.[2]

I-Homo sapiens yaqala ukuhlala kweli lizwe ngaphezulu kweminyaka ye-200,000 eyadlulayo. Abantu abangabeTswana bayinzala yabathethi zesiNtu ezafudukela emazantsi e-Afrika zaya kwiBotswana malunga ne-600 AD, zezihlala kwiindawo ezinesizwe njengabalimi nabelusi. Ngo-1885, aba-British bawuthanga lo mhlaba bewuthiya i-Protectorate ye-Bechuanaland . Njengokuba ubuKoloni babusenzeka, iBechuanaland yaba yiriphabliki ezimeleyo ye- Commonwealth phantsi kwegama langoku nge-30 kaSeptemba ka-1966. [3] Namhlanje iBotswana yiriphabliki, enerekhodi lenani leenyulo ezinobulungisa.[4]

Uqoqosho lulawulwa yimigodi, ziinkomo nalukhenketho. Namhlanje abantu baseBotswana banomvuzo wonyaka emalunga ne-$18,825 kwi-avareji ngo-2015, lolona luphakamileyo eAfrika.[5]

IBotswana lilungu leManyano yase- Afrika, loMbutho woPhuhliso lwamaZantsi e-Afrika, iZizwe eziManyeneyo kunye neZizwe eziManyeneyo . Ilizwe lichatshazelwe kakubi bubhubhane we-HIV/AIDS. Ngaphandle kwempumelelo kwiinkqubo zokwenza ukuba unyango lufumaneke, kunye nokufundisa abantu malunga nendlela yokunqanda ukusasazeka kwe-HIV/AIDS, inani labantu abane-AIDS lenyuka ukusuka ku-290,000 ngo-2005 ukuya ku-320,000 ngo-2013.[6]Ngo-2014, IBotswana ikwelona nani lesithathu liphezulu lokufumana i-HIV/AIDS: ngama-20% abantu abosulelekileyo.[7]

Igama[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Igama leli lizwe lithetha "Umhlaba wabeTswana", abaliqela elikhulu apho. [8] Igama elithi Batswana ekuqaleni lalisetyenziswa kwabeTswana, nangoku kunjalo.[9] Nangona kunjalo, likwasetyenziselwa ngokubanzi njengegama labo bonke abemi baseBotswana nabantu abangakwazi ukuthetha isiTswana.[10]

Imbali[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Umzobo 'imiKhombe emibini' eTsodilo, indawo yeMveli ye-UNESCO

Imbali yokuqala[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukumbiwa kwezinto zakudala kubonise ukuba ii-hominids zihlala eBotswana kangangesithuba seminyaka ezizigidi ezibini. Izixhobo zamatye kunye namathanbo wezilwanyana zibonise ukuba zonke iindawo zelizwe zazinabahleli iminyaka ye-400,000 eyadlulayo. Ngo-Okthobha wo-2019, abaphandi baxela ukuba iBotswana yayindawo yokuzalwa bonke abantu behlabathi malunga neminyaka 200,000 eyadlulayo.[11] Lo mzobo wazotywe malunga neminyaka 70,000 eyadlulayo.[12] Ekuqaleni abantu bathetha iziKhoisan kulo mmandla.

Mfecane[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Imephu ezotywe ngamaJamani ngo-1905 ebonisa iAfrika esemazantsi

Phantsi ko-1820s uKumkani uMakaba II wabakhokela abaNgwaketse ababeneenkomo ezininzi entlangweni. Babenomkhosi onamandla yaye babehlala edolophini enabantu abali-10,000.[13] Ixesha lobunzima laqala ngo-1823-1843: eli xesha libizwa "Mfecane". Kwakukho iimfazwe ezininzi phakathi abeTswana namaNdebele nabaKololo. UShaka Zulu ebemanya ubukumkani bakhe emazantsi.

Ngo-1852 uKumkani uSechele I ukhokele izikumkani zamaTswana ukoyisa amaBhulu awayeze kubela umhlaba wazo eDimawe. Ngo-1960 amaBhulu avumile ukungabuyi.[14] Ngeli xesha abathunywa bevangeli bafika: ngo-1875 uKumkani Khama III wathi ukuba ubuKrestu buyinkolo yabeTswana. Lo Kumkani wakha izikolo, akazange avume utywala nokuhlala kwabamhlophe kumhlaba wakhe.[15]

Ngo-1885 umkhosi weGreat Britain wangena eBotswana ukungeza umhlaba; kwakungekho nto banokuyenza ookumkani.[16] Ngo-June 1966 uSeretse Khama waba ngumongameli wokuqala weBotswana emeleyo.

IJografi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Imephu yemozulu yaseBotswana. Intlango eyomileyo ibomvu; intlango enemvula engaphezulu iorenji.

IBotswana ityebile kwindalo. Imozulu yomile, kodwa i-Okavango Delta izisa amanzi emantla. Ipaki yelizwe yeTshobe "Chobe" inelona nani likhulu leendlovu emhlabeni yaye ineentlobo zeentaka ezingama-350. Iingxaki ezimbini zendalo ziimbalela nakukunwenwa kwentlango. Isebe lezamahlathi laqala ukutyala izityalo zemveli ukunceda imvula nokunqanda ukhukuliseko lomhlaba.[17]

Amaqwarhashe azulazula kwi-Okavango Basin
  1. Darwa, P. Opoku (2011) Kazungula Bridge Project African Development Fund p. Appendix IV archived from the original on 14 November 2012 retrieved 4 May 2012  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Maundeni, Zibani; Mpabanga, Dorothy; Mfundisi, Adam (2007-01-01) "Consolidating Democratic Governance in Southern Africa : Botswana" Africa Portal retrieved 2020-05-28 
  3. "Bechuanaland was the former name of Botswana" generalknowledgefacts.com archived from the original on 23 March 2015 retrieved 20 February 2018  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. "overview of CPI indices" Transparency International archived from the original on 8 January 2018 retrieved 8 January 2018  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. "Botswana" The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency 2014 retrieved 16 April 2014 
  6. "The Gap Report" Geneva: UN AIDS 2014 archived from the original on 20 June 2016 retrieved 21 June 2016  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. "HIV and Aids in Botswana" Avert International Aids Charity archived from the original on 28 February 2009 retrieved 21 June 2016  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. "The CIA World Factbook 2017" Central Intelligence Agency p. 111 retrieved 15 May 2007 
  9. Bolaane, Maitseo; Mgadla, Part Themba (1997) Batswana The Rosen Publishing Group p. 1 ISBN 9780823920082  Unknown parameter |url-access= ignored (help)
  10. "Botswanan or Batswana? It's complicated – Voices of Africa" Voices of Africa 17 August 2015 archived from the original on 6 January 2018 retrieved 6 January 2018  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  11. Chan, Eva KF; Timmermann, Axel; Baldi, Benedetta F.; Moore, Andy E.; Lyons, Ruth J.; Lee, Sun-Seon; Kalsbeek, Anton MF; Petersen, Desiree C.; Rautenbach, Hannes; Förtsch, Hagen EA; Bornman, MS Riana (28 October 2019) "Human origins in a southern African palaeo-wetland and first migrations" Nature (Nature Research) 575 (7781): 185–189 Bibcode:2019Natur.575..185C PMID 31659339 Check |pmid= value (help) doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1714-1 retrieved 23 March 2020 
  12. Staurset, Sigrid; Coulson, Sheila (2014-10) "Sub-surface movement of stone artefacts at White Paintings Shelter, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana: Implications for the Middle Stone Age chronology of central southern Africa" Journal of Human Evolution 75: 153–165 ISSN 0047-2484 doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.04.006 
  13. Morton, Fred (1992) "Slave-Raiding and Slavery in the Western Transvaal after the Sand River Convention" African Economic History (20): 99 ISSN 0145-2258 doi:10.2307/3601632 
  14. "Botswana" dx.doi.org 1991-01-01 retrieved 2021-05-07 
  15. Stuart., Landau, Paul (1995) The realm of the word : language, gender and christianity in au Southern African kingdom Heinemann ISBN 0-435-08963-3 OCLC 468684453 
  16. Schapera, I. (2021-01-07) "Tswana Chiefs and Social Change" Tribal Innovators (Routledge): 228–265 ISBN 978-1-003-13592-0 
  17. "Original PDF" dx.doi.org archived from the original on 2018-05-19 retrieved 2021-05-07