I-gene

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Ii-genes zizinto ezisakhiwo sazo senza i-DNA. I-DNA yingqokolela yolwazi ngezinto ezikhemical nezithwala imiyalelo eyenza okokuba kwenziwe zonke ii-proteins ezifunwa yi-cell ebomini bayo. I-gene nganye inengqokolela enye yemiyalelo.  Le miyalelo ke idla ngonikwa uphawu lweprotein nganye.  Ihafu ye-genes zomntu ivela kumama.  Enye ihafu ivela kutata.  

Ingcaciso[tshintsha | edit source]

Ngokwentsusa: isiza sofuzo apha endalweni  sizinze kwindawo ethile (locus) kwi-chromosome.[1] Ezinye iingcaciso ezinikwayo ziziindlela ezibonakalisa ngayo i-gene:

1. I-unit enolwamvila olunye nangaphezulu kwi-phenotype yesidalwa esinobomi okanye isidalwa esiphilayo. 
2. i-unit enakho ukutshintsa ngokwendalo  ibe ziintlobo-ntlobo zee-alleles;
3. I-unit ehlaziya umanyano lwayo nezinye ii-units ezikwanjengayo. 

Inkcazo yakutshanje kufuneka izithathele ingqalelo izinto eziman'ukufumaneka ngokuya kuhamba amaxesha.[2] kungoku nje ii-genes zintlantlu-mbini.[3]p173

1. Ii-genes ezitkhutshelwe zinjalo ngokubhalwa kwi-mRNAs zaze zaguqulelwa ngokubhalwa zabangamatsheyini e-polypeptide.
2. Ii-genes ezimibhalo yayo ikhutshelwe yazii--(tRNAs, rRNAs, snRNAs) zisetyenziswa ngokungqale ngqo. Ezi ke ziziquququ ezenza umsebenzi 'wokulawula ngokulandelelana kwawo' xa ikhutshelwa injalo okanye iguqulwa i- DNA.

Zenza ntoni ii-genes?[tshintsha | edit source]

Ii-genes zihamba zisuka kumzali zisiya kwisizalo sakhe kwaye ikwazizo ezenza isigqibo esibalulekileyo sokokuba isizalo masibonakale njani na kwaye sisebenze njani na.  (ii-biological properties zazo). Ii-genes zichaphazela indlela esebenza ngayo imizimba yethu, kuquka nendlela esibonakalo ngayo. Amehlo ethu, iinwele, kunye nebala lwesikhumba zixhomekeke kwii-genes. Kuthiwa ii-genes zenza ifuthe kwisizalo nakufuzo kwimizimba yethu.  

I-gene isenokongamela okanye  ibe-recessive.[4] Esi sigama sibhekisa kwifuthe i-gene ebanalo kwisizalo esiyithweleyo kwi-genome yayo.

Umzekelo, masithi umama unee-genes zeenwele ezimdaka ngombala kuphela, abe yena utata enee-genes zeenwele ezibomvu kuphela. Umntwana uyakufuza – uyakwamkela – ii-genes zeenwele ezibomvu  (ezivela kutata wakhe) nezenwele ezimdaka ngokwebala (ezivela kumama wakhe). Ii-gene zeenwele ezimdaka ngokwebala, ziyako'ngamela' ii-gene zeenwele ezibomvu ngokwebala. Oku kuthetha okokuba umntwana okanye isizalo uyakubaneenwele ezimdaka ngokwebala nangona enazo zombini  ii-genes zeenwele ezibomvu  nezeenwele ezimdaka ngokwebala.  Oku kuthetha okokuba kufuneka ibenye kuphela i-gene eyongamelayo emntwaneni ukuze afumane ufuzo oluthile,  ngeli lixa kufuneka ii-genes ezimbini ukuze le inye i-gene ikwazi ukwenzeka.  

Kukho i-trait esingathi yimbewu encathame nerhoxobe  apha kwi-gene yezizukulwana ngezizukulwana.  Makhe sisebenzise laa mzekelo wokugqibela uthetha ngomntwana.  sizakumbiza u"Mary". UMary uneenwele ezimdaka ngombala, kodwa unee-genes ezinemibala emibini, ezimdaka nezibomvu.  Make sithi uMary lo uthe esakubamdala watshata no-Tom. UTom naye uneenwele ezimdaka ngobala, kodwa kwanjengoMary omnye wabazali bakaTom uneenwele ezibomvu.  Oku kuthetha okokuba uTom unee-genes zeenwele ezibomvu nezimdaka ngombala. UMary kunye noTom emnye kubo anganethuba lokugqithisela kwizizukulwana iinwele ezinee-genes ezimbala   mdaka okanye obomvu kubantwana babo. Oku kuthetha okokuba abantwana bakaMary noTom banganeenwele ezibomvu okanye ezimdaka ngombala. Yhiyo le nto ungafika umntu eneempawu ezahlukileyo kwezo zomzali wakhe, kodwa abe efana nqwa nabazali babazali bakhe okanye nookhokho bakhe. 

Ukumila nomsebenzi wee-genes [tshintsha | edit source]

Indlela eyakhiwe ngayo i-gene inemibandela emininzi:  Uqobo lophawu lwe-protein yindawo nje encinane apha kuyo. Kukho iindawo ze-DNA ezingenakubhalwa ngobunjalo bazo kube kukho nezi zingenakuguqulelwa ze-RNA[5][6]

I-structure se-eukaryotic protein-coding gene.

Anxulumene neli[tshintsha | edit source]

  • Allele#Dominance
  • Sequence analysis
  • Genetics
  • ENCODE, the complete analysis of the human genome
  • Gene therapy

Funda nanga amanye amaphepha[tshintsha | edit source]

  1. Carlson E.A. 1989.
  2. Keller, Evelyn Fox 2000.
  3. King R.C. Stansfield W.D. & Mulligan P.K. 2006.
  4. These are not the only possibilities: see Allele#Dominance.
  5. Alberts B. et al 2002.
  6. See also transcription (genetics)