I-cell

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Ii-ccls ze-eukaryotes (ekhohlo) kunye ne ne-prokaryotes (ngasekunene)
I-cell ye-Endothelial: ii-nuclei ityatyekwe ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, i-mitochondria ityatyekwe ngombala obomvu, kunye ne-F-actin, into ethile apha kwii-microfilaments eyenza okokuba ii-cells ziphile, ityatyekwe ngombala oluhlaza okwengca. umfanekiso we-cell kwi-microscopeye-fluorescent.

Ngokwa-bayoloji, i-cell sisiseko sesakhiwo see-organisms. Zonke ii-cells zenziwe ngezinye ii-cells.

Umphandle we-cell wohlulwe kumphakathi wawo ngenwebu i-cell membrane. Ngaphakathi wezinye ii-cells, amalungwa azizicuku ze-cell ahlala ngokwahlukana kwamanye. Laa malungwana ngokwahlukana kwawo abizwa ngokuba zii-organelles (njengee-organs). Ilungwana ngalinye kwi-cell linomsebenzi walo owahlukileyo. Umzekelo ubonakala kwi-nucleus (apho i-DNA ikhoyo), kunye ne-mitochondria (apho kwenziwa khona amandla anokusetyenziswa).[1][2]

Iintlobo zee-cell[tshintsha | edit source]

Zimbini ezona ntlobo zee-cells: zii-prokaryotic kunye nee-eukaryotic. Ii-Prokaryotes, ii-bacteria kunye neearchaea, zii-cells ezibuthathaka kuba zingena cell nucleus. Zinee-bacterial microcompartments, igobhozana eliqulethe iiproteni nee-enzymes.

Ii-Eukaryotes zona zii-cells ezomeleleyo noko kuba zinee-organelles ezininzi kwakunye nezinye izakhiwo kwalapha kuyo i-cell. zinkulu zona kunee-prokaryote cells: Ubukhulu bazo bungaphinda-phindwa kali-1000. Ii-Eukaryotes zigcina i-information malunga negenetic (i-DNA) kwii-chromosomes ezikwi-cell nucleus. Ii-Organisms (izinto eziphilayo) ezenziwa kukwakheka kwee-cell ngokuphinda-phindeneyo kuthiwa zii-eukaryotes.

Iintlobo ezizii-organisms ze-prokaryotic[tshintsha | edit source]

Zii-bacteria nee-archaea kukuphela kweentlobo zee-organisms ze-prokaryotic eziphilayo sithetha nje. Ii-organisms ze-Prokaryotic zikhula phambi kokuba zikhule ii-orgamisms ze-eukaryotic, ngoko ke kubakho ixesha apho ihlabathi lihlala lingenanto kodwa zibe zikhona zona ii-organisms ze-prokaryotic. Kukwakho nee-ntsholongwane, ekunzima kakhulu ukuzicalucalula ngokweentlobo zazo, zibe zingunozala wezifo. Iintsholongwane zenziwa y-i-RNA, okanye i-DNA, kunye ne-protein, kwaye ziyaqhama zizandise ngokwazo ngaphakathi kwii-cells ze-bacteria okanye kwi-eukaryotes.

Iintlobo zee-organisms ze-eukaryotic[tshintsha | edit source]

i-Unicellular[tshintsha | edit source]

IParamecium, i-organism enecell enye kuphela

Ii-organisms ezizii-Unicellular zenziwe nge-cell- enye. Imizekelo yezi organisms zizii-Unicellula nantsi:

Iiorganisms ezii-unicellula kufuneka zi:

Zonke ii-organisms ezizii-Unicellular kufuneka zi:

  • gutyule ukungcola
  • zandise ngokwazo (zenze okokuba zibeninzi)
  • khule

abanye bathi:

Multicellular[tshintsha | edit source]

Iiorganisms ezizii-Multicellular zenziwa kwiicells ezininzi. Zii-organisms ezomeleleyo. Kusenokwenzeka okokuba liqaqobana nje elincinane lee-cells, ukanti isenokuba zizigidi zee-cels. Zonke ke izityalo nezilwanyana zii-organisms ezizii-multicellular. Ii-cells zee-organisms ezi-multicellular azifani. Zimi ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo kwaye azilingani nangobukhulu, kwaye zenza imisebenzi eyahlukeneyo kkuso nasiphi na isidalwa esiphilayo/kwi-organism. Ii-cells zinemisebenzi yazo. Oku kuthetha okokuba zenza olo hlobo luthile kuphela lomsebenzi. Ngokokwazo azikwazi ukwenza yonke into efuneka emizimbeni yezidalwa eziphilayo ukuze ziphile. kufuneka ezinye ii-cells zenze eminye imisebenzi efuneka emzimbeni. Zisoloko ziphila kunye ezi cells kuba zingenakuphila zizodwa, ngaphandle kwezinye ii-cells.

Imbali nge-cell[tshintsha | edit source]

Ii-Cells zaabhaqwa nguRobert Hooke ngo-(1635–1703). Wasebenzisa i-microscope eyayinee-lenses ukujonga kwizakhiwo ezimbini zikacork, nokujonga amagqabi nakwezinye iiinsects. Wakwenza oku ukususela kwiminyaka yoo-1660, waza wanika ingxelo ngalo msebenzi kwincwadi i-Micrographica ngo-1665. Wathiya igama elithi cells ngegama legama le-siLatini elithi-cella, elithetha ukuthi 'gumbi'. Wayekwenza oku kuba wayecinga okokuba ii-cells zibonakala ngathi ngamagunjana amancinane.

Imithombo[tshintsha | edit source]

  1. Alberts B. et al. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell. 4th ed, Garland.
  2. Lodish H. et al. 2004. Molecular cell biology. 5th ed, WH Freeman: NY.