I-cell

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Ii-ccls ze-eukaryotes (ekhohlo) kunye ne ne-prokaryotes (ngasekunene)
I-cell ye-Endothelial: ii-nuclei ityatyekwe ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, i-mitochondria ityatyekwe ngombala obomvu, kunye ne-F-actin, into ethile apha kwii-microfilaments eyenza okokuba ii-cells ziphile, ityatyekwe ngombala oluhlaza okwengca. umfanekiso we-cell kwi-microscopeye-fluorescent.

Ngokwa-biology, i-cell sisiseko sesakhiwo see-organisms. Zonke ii-cells zenziwe ngezinye ii-cells.

Umphandle we-cell wohlulwe kumphakathi wawo ngenwebu i-cell membrane. Ngaphakathi wezinye ii-cells, amalungwa azizicuku ze-cell ahlala ngokwahlukana kwamanye. Laa malungwana ngokwahlukana kwawo abizwa ngokuba zii-organelles (njengee-organs). Ilungwana ngalinye kwi-cell linomsebenzi walo owahlukileyo. Umzekelo ubonakala kwi-nucleus (apho i-DNA ikhoyo), kunye ne-mitochondria (apho kwenziwa khona amandla anokusetyenziswa).[1][2]

Iintlobo zee-cell[tshintsha | edit source]

Zimbini ezona ntlobo zee-cells: zii-prokaryotic kunye nee-eukaryotic. Ii-Prokaryotes, ii-bacteria kunye neearchaea, zii-cells ezibuthathaka kuba zingena cell nucleus. Zinee-bacterial microcompartments, igobhozana eliqulethe iiproteni nee-enzymes.

Ii-Eukaryotes zona zii-cells ezomeleleyo noko kuba zinee-organelles ezininzi kwakunye nezinye izakhiwo kwalapha kuyo i-cell. zinkulu zona kunee-prokaryote cells: Ubukhulu bazo bungaphinda-phindwa kali-1000. Ii-Eukaryotes zigcina i-information malunga negenetic (i-DNA) kwii-chromosomes ezikwi-cell nucleus. Ii-Organisms (izinto eziphilayo) ezenziwa kukwakheka kwee-cell ngokuphinda-phindeneyo kuthiwa zii-eukaryotes.

Iintlobo ezizii-organisms ze-prokaryotic[tshintsha | edit source]

Zii-bacteria nee-archaea kukuphela kweentlobo zee-organisms ze-prokaryotic eziphilayo sithetha nje. Ii-organisms ze-Prokaryotic zikhula phambi kokuba zikhule ii-orgamisms ze-eukaryotic, ngoko ke kubakho ixesha apho ihlabathi lihlala lingenanto kodwa zibe zikhona zona ii-organisms ze-prokaryotic. Kukwakho nee-ntsholongwane, ekunzima kakhulu ukuzicalucalula ngokweentlobo zazo, zibe zingunozala wezifo. Iintsholongwane zenziwa y-i-RNA, okanye i-DNA, kunye ne-protein, kwaye ziyaqhama zizandise ngokwazo ngaphakathi kwii-cells ze-bacteria okanye kwi-eukaryotes.

Iintlobo zee-organisms ze-eukaryotic[tshintsha | edit source]

i-Unicellular[tshintsha | edit source]

IParamecium, i-organism enecell enye kuphela

Ii-organisms ezizii-Unicellular zenziwe nge-cell- enye. Imizekelo yezi organisms zizii-Unicellula nantsi:

Iiorganisms ezii-unicellula kufuneka zi:

Zonke ii-organisms ezizii-Unicellular kufuneka zi:

  • gutyule ukungcola
  • zandise ngokwazo (zenze okokuba zibeninzi)
  • khule

abanye bathi:

Multicellular[tshintsha | edit source]

Iiorganisms ezizii-Multicellular zenziwa kwiicells ezininzi. Zii-organisms ezomeleleyo. Kusenokwenzeka okokuba liqaqobana nje elincinane lee-cells, ukanti isenokuba zizigidi zee-cels. Zonke ke izityalo nezilwanyana zii-organisms ezizii-multicellular. Ii-cells zee-organisms ezi-multicellular azifani. Zimi ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo kwaye azilingani nangobukhulu, kwaye zenza imisebenzi eyahlukeneyo kkuso nasiphi na isidalwa esiphilayo/kwi-organism. Ii-cells zinemisebenzi yazo. Oku kuthetha okokuba zenza olo hlobo luthile kuphela lomsebenzi. Ngokokwazo azikwazi ukwenza yonke into efuneka emizimbeni yezidalwa eziphilayo ukuze ziphile. kufuneka ezinye ii-cells zenze eminye imisebenzi efuneka emzimbeni. Zisoloko ziphila kunye ezi cells kuba zingenakuphila zizodwa, ngaphandle kwezinye ii-cells.

Imbali nge-cell[tshintsha | edit source]

Ii-Cells zaabhaqwa nguRobert Hooke ngo-(1635–1703). Wasebenzisa i-microscope eyayinee-lenses ukujonga kwizakhiwo ezimbini zikacork, nokujonga amagqabi nakwezinye iiinsects. Wakwenza oku ukususela kwiminyaka yoo-1660, waza wanika ingxelo ngalo msebenzi kwincwadi i-Micrographica ngo-1665. Wathiya igama elithi cells ngegama legama le-siLatini elithi-cella, elithetha ukuthi 'gumbi'. Wayekwenza oku kuba wayecinga okokuba ii-cells zibonakala ngathi ngamagunjana amancinane.

  1. Alberts B. et al. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell. 4th ed, Garland.
  2. Lodish H. et al. 2004. Molecular cell biology. 5th ed, WH Freeman: NY.