Usapho

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abazali ababini nomntwana; Umfanekiso oqingqiweyo wosapho (eUnited Nations, eGeneva).

Usapho liqela labantu abaye bathi, kwiimeko ezininzi, bahlale kunye. Babelana ngemali nangokutya kwabo kwaye bamelwe kukukhathalelana. Amalungu alo asenokuzalana ngokwegazi (njengomntu nomnakwabo okanye nodade wabo) okanye ngokubotshelelwa kwabo ngokomthetho, umzekelo ngokwasemtshatweni.  Kumasiko amaninzi, amalungu osapho anefani 

Usapho lubizwa ngokuba sisiseko sentlalo. Ubomi bosapho bungeemfihlelo zosapho kwaye ukuzalana kwamalungu alo kusondelelene kakhulu kunobomi bukawonke wonke.  Kodwa ke kumazwe amaninzi kukho imithetho yako. Umzekelo, kukho imiqathango yokutshata apha kusapho kwaye kuyatshatyalaliswa ukwabelana ngesondo kwamalungu azalanayo, eingakumbi ebantwaneni.

Iintlobo zosapho[tshintsha | edit source]

Zintathu iintlobo zeentsapho, nazi, : usapho lwe-nuclear , usapho lwabazali abangenabalingani kunye nosapho ngokuzalana. 

  1. Usapho lwe-nuclear lunabazali kunye nabantwana usenokuba mnye nangaphezulu bonke behlala ndawonye.
  2. Usapho olumzali mnye lolo athi emnye nje abe enomntwana omnye okanye abantwana ababini nangaphezulu. 
  3. Usapho ngokuphangaleleyo okanye iintsapho ngomnanyeneyo luthetha utata, umama, intombi, oonyana, umakhulu notat'omkhulu, umalume, u-anti, umzala, abatshana. Kumazwe amaninzi aquka  iTshayina, iPakistan kunye ne-India, Lonke usapho ngokwanda kwalo luhlala ndawonye. 

Zombini ezi ntsapho "olwabazali bobabini" nolo"lunomzali omnye" babizwa ngokuba ziintsapho "ezikufutshane".

Iintsapho zefoster  ziintsapho apho umntwana akhuliswa khona ngabantu abangamzaliyo. 

Ukusondelelana [tshintsha | edit source]

Ezinye iintsapho zisondelelene ngokuzalana. Olu luhlu lulandelayo lunika imizekelo yokuzalana ngokwesiNgesi.  

I-Kinship Iqondo lokuzalana 
Genetic

overlap

izilwanyana zomnombo omnye  ngokuzalana
Akukho qondo 99%
umceph'ucandiwe wamawele Akukho qondo 
100%[1]
abazalwa kunye ngabazali abanye
Iqondo lokuqala
50% (2−2+2−2)
I-Parent-offspring[2] iqondo lokuqala
50% (2−1)
I-Offspring/progeny Iqondo lokuqalafirst-degree
50% (2−1)
I-Half-sibling Iqondo lesibini  25% (2−2)
I-3/4 siblings or sibling-cousin iqondo lesibini  37.5% (2−2+2⋅2−4)
Umhakhulu/uta'omkhulu iqondo lesibini  25% (2−2)
Abatshana Iqondo lesithathu
25% (2⋅2−3)
U-Anti/umalume iqondo lesithathu
25% (2⋅2−3)
i-Half-aunt, half-uncle Iqondo lesithathu
12.5% (2⋅2−4)
I-Half-niece/half-nephew Iqondo lesithathu
12.5% (2⋅2−4)
umama kamhakhulu Iqondo lesithathu
12.5% (2−3)
umzala omkhulu Iqondo lesine  12.5% (2⋅2−4)
i-Double first couisin Iqondo lesine  25% (2−3+2−3)
I-Half-first cousin Iqondo lesine  6.25% (2−4)
i-First cousin once removed Iqondo lesihlanu
6.25% (2⋅2−5)
I-Second cousin Iqondo lesithandathu
3.125% 3.13% (2−6+2−6)
I-Double second cousin Iqondo lesithandathu
6.25% (4⋅2−6)
I-Triple second cousin iqondo lesithandathu
12.5% (8⋅2−6)
i-Quadruple second cousin Iqondo lesithandathu
9.38% (6⋅2−6)
Umzala wesithathu  Iqondo esixhenxe
0.781% (2⋅2−8)
umzala wesine 
Iqondo leshumi
0.20% (2⋅2−10)[3]

Ii-Notes:

Amanye amaphepha anxulumene neli[tshintsha | edit source]

  • I-Divorce uqhawulo mtshato
  • Inkedama
    • By replacement in the definition of the notion of "generation" by meiosis".
    • "Kin Selection".
    • This degree of relationship is usually indistinguishable from the relationship to a random individual within the same population (tribe, country, ethnic group).