Igramma

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i-Gramma ithetha imigaqo ebonisa indlela ekuthethwa nekubhalwa ngayo ulwimi. AmaGrike akudala ayedla ngokuyibiza nge-grammatikē tékhnē, ubuchule boonobumba. Isenokuba nayo nayiphi na intsingiselo kwezi zilandelayo:

  1. Izifundo ngolwimi: indlela olusebenza ngayo, nayo yonke into ngalo. Olu hlobo lwesifundo kuthiwa yiYintsusa yokuphanda nzulu ngolwimi.
  2. Ukufunda ngendlela esima ngayo okanye ngenkangeleko yesivakalisi. Ingqokolela yemigaqo kunye nemizekelo ebonisa okokuba ulwimi lumelwe kukusetyenziswa njani na. Le ke yeyona ndlela ifanelwe kukusetyenziswa ngayo igramma, njengoko kubhaliwe kwincwadi yayo okanye kumgaqo wayo osencwadini.
  3. Inkqubo efundwa ngabantu ngokuya bekhula. Le ke yigrama yabanikazi bolwimi .[1]p446[2]p453

Xa sithetha, sisebenzisa igramma yomnikazi lwimi, okanye sibebusondela kangangoko sinako. Xa sibhala, sizama ukubhala ngegramma echanekileyo. Ngoko ke ukuthetha nokubhala ulwimi inye kuzo inendlela yayo.

Ilwimi ngeelwimi[tshintsha | edit source]

Zonke iilwimi zine-gramma yazo. Iilwimi zamaYurophu amaninzi zibufana, kodwa ezinye zazo, ezifana nesiTshayina nesiJaphane, zahluke kakhulu kuzo zonke iilwimi zaseYurophu. IsiNgesi senza utshintsho oluncinane kw('isimamva segama'). Ngokweelwimi zesiTaliyane okanye isi'Roma' (njengesiFrentshi, language|Italian, kunye neSpanishi), amagama okugqibela athwele intsingiselo eninzi. KwisiNgesi sinazo ezimbalwa: isininzi kunye nezimnini (ooJohn) zezona zixhaphake kakhulu. Kwizenzi zethu siyazilahla izimamva sishiye sibe sinye: I love, you love, kodwa she love's'. Laa 's' yintsalela ye-Anglo-Saxon, enezimamva. Izenzi zinezimamva ezibonakalisa utshintsho kumaxesha awohlukenyo: walked, walking. Ukulandelelana kwamagama ngomnye umahluko omkhulu. Iilwimi zamaRoma zifaka ii-izichazi emva kwezibizo ezibhekisa kuzo. Umzekelo, kwisiNgesi, umntu angathi I like fast cars, kodwa ngeSpanishi, yiMe gustan los coches rápidos. Ukulandelelana kwamagama kutshintshile: ukuba ngaba ngamagama, ngaphandle kwegramma, aguqulelwe kwisiNgesi, kuyakuthetha ukuthi, 'to me they please the cars fast'. Kungokuba iSpanishi nesiNgesi sinemigaqo eyahlukeneyo ngokulandelelana kwamagama. KwisiJamani, izenzi zisoloko zifikelela kufutshane nesiphelo sezivakalisi (njengakwesi: Die Katze hat die Nahrung gegessen.), kodwa kwisiNgesi sisoloko sisibeka phakathi kwegatya eliyintloko kunye nenjongosenzi, njengakwesi: the cat has eaten the food.

Ukutshintsha kolwimi[tshintsha | edit source]

Igramma ebhaliweyo itshintsha kancinane kodwa yona igramma ethethwayo iyachebeleza okwamanziukutshintsha kwayo. Izivakalisi ezifunyanisea ngabantu abantetho isisiNgesi kule mihla, kungenzeka okokuba zazibonakala zingaqhelekanga kwiminyaka eli-100 eyadlulayo. kwaye isenokungaqheleki, kuba iintetho ezininzi esizithandayo zivela kwinguqulelo equnyazisiweyo kakumkani uKing james wasebhayibhileni, nakuShakesspear.

abanye abantu basebenzisa igramma eyahlukileyo kwabanye abantu xa bethetha. Umzekelo, abantu abasebenzisa into ekuthiwa yi-General American English okanye i-BBC English basenokuthi, I didn't do anything, ngeli lixa umntu othetha ulwimi olubizwa ngokuba yi-African American Vernacular English okanye i-AAVE asenokuthi, I didn't do nothing. Inguqulelo yaseLondon kwinqanaba labasebenzi: I ain't done nuffink! Ezi ke zibizwa ngokuba zii-double negatives, kwaye zifumaneka kulwimi phantse kulo lonke ulwimi oluthethwayo ubukhulu becala, hayi kulwimi olubhaliweyo.

Lo mahluko kuthiwa xa ubizwa zii-dialects. I-dialect esetyenziswa ngumntu isoloko ibayileyo ithethwa apho umntu ahlala khona. Nangona ii-dialects zesiNgesi ibangamagama awohlukileyo okanye alandelelana ngohlobo olwahlukileyo kwamanye, zihamba ngokwemigaqo yegramma. kodwa ke xa kubhalwa ngesiNgesi saseMelika, igramma isebenzisa imigaqo yesiNgesi saseMelika jikelele. Xa abantu bethetha ng'esona siNgesi sisiso', bathetha ngokusebenzisa igramma yesiNgesi saseBritane, njengoko sibhaliwe sacaciswa kakuhle kwimibhalo eshicilelwe ngokwasemthethweni. [3] Imizekelo yesiNgesi esithethwa mihla le eBritane isoloko ibizwa ngokuba yi-received Pronunciation okanye yi-BBC English.

I-Syntax[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwigramma kufundwa ngesyntax nangamalungu olwimi awohlukeneyo. Zonke ke zi kuthiwa ngamagatya entetho". Ayadibana ngokwemigaqo kutsho kwenzeke izivakalisi. Izivakalisi zona ziyadibana zenze imihlathi.

Izigaba zentetho[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwigramma kufundwa ngezibizo, izimelabizo, izenzi, iziphawuli, izihlomelo, prepositions, isihlanganisi, izivakalisi, iintetho, izikhuzo.

Izibizo[tshintsha | edit source]

Izibizo z'izinto' ezifana namagama anjenge'tafile kunye ne'situlo'. zizizinto eziphatheka ngezandla, izinto ozibona imihla ngemihla. Izibizo zezinto ezifana neendawo, amagama abantu, okanye ezinye izinto ezifana neentsuku zeveki. Igama elithi 'James' kuthiwa liyi-proper noun, njengo'lwesithathu' ne-'London'. Izibizo zisenokuba ngamagama ezinto ezingabonwayo ngamehlo okanye singathi izibizo zisenokubhekisa kuvakalelo njengaxa umntu exhwalekile okanye onwabile'.

Izenzi[tshintsha | edit source]

Izenzi zichaza into eyenzekayo kunye nobume. Ukwenzeka kwento : "uJohn wajula ibhola . imeko/ubume: "Ndinexhala". Igama ekwakhelwe kulo isenzi kuthiwa yi-infinitive. I-infinitive ebhekisa kubukho bento ngu-"uku". umzekelo owaziwayo yintetho kaHamlet: ukuba njalo okanye ukungabinjalo, ngumbuzo lowo.

Iziphawuli[tshintsha | edit source]

Iziphawuli zichaza izibizo. Umzekelo, ubuhle k"ubuhle bebhayisikili" buthi ibhayisikili intle. Ngamanye amazwi, "ubuhle" buchaza ibhayisikili. Oku kusenokwenzeka nakwiindawo. Umzekelo, ubude, "sisakhiwo eside esi buchaza isakhiwo.

  1. McArthur, Tom (ed) 1992. The Oxford companion to the English language. Oxford University Press.
  2. Crystal, David 1995. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Nash, Walter 1986. English usage: a guide to first principles. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. Contains a list of sources.