Inzululwazi

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Inzululwazi (Ngolwimi lwesiisiLatini kuthiwa yiscientia, oko kuthetha ukuthi "Ulwazi"[1]) yinkqubo eyenziwa ngezicwangciso, ngeendlela ezamkelekileyo nangemiqathango yophando kwinzululwazi ngendlela eyakwenza ukuba kubelula ukuba luvavanywe kunjalo nje luphicothwe, kutsho kubelula ukwenza uqikelelo ngeziphumo zophando olwenziwa kweli phakade. Yonke ke le miqathango yophando kufuneka ilandelwe ngenyameko xa kuqokolelwa ulwazi olu loluhlobo. [2][3][4] Kwintsingiselo yakudla nekuyeyona ibusondela kule, inzululwazi ikwabhekisa kuhlobo lolwazi olunokugocwa-gocwa ngemibuzo ze ke ngoko lube lwakheke phezu kwezizathu ezivakalayo nezinokuthi zichazwe ngokwamanqaku avakalayo ze ke ngoko lube lulwazi ekunokungqiyanywa kulo ngenxa yokuthembeka kwalo ingakumbi xa lusetyenziswa. Lowo usebenza ngobunzululwazi kuthiwa yingcali yezophando.

Kwisigaba sexesha elide , inzululwazi njengohlobo lolwazi yayisondele kakhulu ngonxibelelwano kwiFilosofi.

Imigama kwimephu yehlabathi jikelele ebonisa amasebe ezenzululwazi.

Inzululwazi yile nto siyenzayo xa sifuna ukufunda ngokwenzeka kwindalo yehlabathi. Iyiphysics, ichemistry, ibiology, igeology kunye ne-astronomy. Kwinzululwazi kusetyenziswa imathematics, kwaye into okanye isenzeko sifundwa ngobunjalo bayo, sijongiwe, size sihliwe amahlongwane phezulu, sigocwagocwa, ize emva koko loo nto kuphandwa ngayo ikhe ilingwe ngeenjongo zokujonga okokuba oko kulindeleke kuyo kuzakwenzeka na. Inzululwazi ikhupha ulwazi oluchanekileyo nolungenamakhwiniba, imithetho yakwanzululwazi, kunye netheori [2][5] 'inzululwazi' ikwabhekisa kulwazi oluninzi yolwazi oluthe lwafunyanwa ngokusebenzisa le nkqubo. [6][7]

Uphando lobunzululwazi lusebenzisa iindlela zophando zakwanzululwazi. uphando lobunzululwazi lusebenzisa isiphakamiso (hypotheses) esisekwe phezu kwezimvo okanye phezu kolwazi osele lukho kakade. Ngoko ke ezi ziphakamiso ziyaphicothwa ngokuvavanywa kwii-experiments.

Bonke abantu abafunda bekwaphanda ngeenzame zokufumanisa yonke into ngobunzululwazi babizwa ngokuba ziingcali zabaphandi. Ezi ngcali zifunda izinto ngokuthi zijonge kwizinto ezifunda ngazo ngononophelo, ngokuthi zenze umlinganiselookanye zimente ezi zinto, zize zenze le misebenzi apho zizakukhe zilinge khona ze ziphinde zikuvavanye konke oko. ezi ngcali zenza zonke iinzame ukuze zichaze okokuba kutheni na izinto zisenzeka ngale ngendlela ezenzeka ngayo, zize ziqikelele okuzakwenzeka.

Iindlela zokwenza uphando lobunzulwazi[tshintsha | edit source]

Namhlanje, "inzululwazi" isoloko ibhekisa kwiindlela zokufumana ulwazi, ingekuko ukufumana uqobo lolwazi kuphela. Ijongene kuphela nokwenzekayo kwizinto ehlabathini. [8] kwinkulungwane yeminyaka ye-17 neye-18 iingcali kwezenzululwazi bathi gqolo ukuseka ukwakhiwa kolwazi ngokwemithetho yendalo enjengeNewton's laws of motion. Kwaza kwathi xa sele kudlule inkulungwane ye-19, igama elithi "Nzululwazi" liya linxulunyaniswa ngakumbi nendlela yokuphanda ngokobunzululwazi, njengendlela yokufunda indalo esemhlabeni, kuquka iphysics, ichemistry, igeology kunye nebiology.

Kuwakule nkulungwane ye19 apho eli gama lithi umphandi wakwanzululwazi lathi lathiywa nguWilliam Whewell. Injongo yakhe yayikukwahlula abo balangazelela ukwazi ngendalo kwabo bafuna olunye uhlobo lolwazi. [9]

Iindlela zophando is the name given to the methods used by scientists to find knowledge. Ezona mpawu zibalulekileyo kwindlela yophando nazi:

  1. Umphandi wakwanzululwazi uza nombuzo okanye abhaqe ingxaki engaba imalunga nendalo. ezinye ke ingxaki ziba lula, nank'umzekelo "mingaphi imilenze yempukane?" ukanti ke eminye imibuzo okanye iingxaki zibanzulu kakhulu, nank'umzekelo, "kutheni le nto izinto zisiwa phantsi emhlabeni?"
  2. Olandelayo, esakube eyifumene igxaki, umphandi wakwanzululwazi uyikhangela ayiphicothe ngobunono ingxaki leyo. Bayisebenze ke beyiphicotha, baqokelele bonke ubungqina obunokuza nobunyani. Ngamanye amaxesha inye kuphela into ekufuneka eyenzile lo mohandi kukufunda le ngxaki ngononophelo olungummangaliso.
  3. kukho imibuzo engenakuphendulwa ngokungqalileyo. kulapho ke abaphandi bathi beze namava abo ngokuthi bacebise, baze ke oko bakucebisileyo bakuvavanye ukuba kuyinyaniso kusini na. Kukwalapho ke benzaulingo baze baqokelele idata|ulwazi]].
  4. Ngelingeni, bayakuqikelela oko bacinga okokuba kuyimpendulo echanekileyo okanye elungileyo kwimibuzo nakwiingxaki ebebenazo phambi kophando. Emva koko ke bayakuxelela abantu ngophando nangeziphumo zophando abalwenzileyo.
  5. Kamva, abanye abaphandi bakwanzululwazi basenokuvumelana okanye bangavumelani. Banakho ukuza nesinye isisombululo kuloo ngxaki ibekiweyo. Basenokuzibeka esikalini ngokukhe bazilinge ezi zisombululo beza nazo ngeenjongo zokuzivavanya. Nantoni na kwinzululwazi kufuneka iphicothwe xa kufunyaniswe okokuba isisombululo ebekuziwe naso kwixesha elidlulileyo asonelisi ngokupheleleyo.

ezinye iimpawu zenzululwazi[tshintsha | edit source]

akusibabo bonke abantu abavumelana nendlela esebenza ngayo inzululwazi. Ezinye iingcali zakwa Filosofi kunye nabaphandi okanye iingcali zakwanzululwazi zithi ulwazi oluthethwayo ngobunzululwazi lwamkelekile okwexeshana. Luthi ze lugcinwe kube kanti lunenkcazelo egqibeleleyo nenambithekayo ngenxa yokunyaniseka kwayo. Xa ke le ntehto ichazayo ngenzululwazi ingenasisekelo, iyashenxiswa kuze kubekwe enye endaweni yayo. Okanye, ngamanye amaxesha iingcali zakwanzululwazi zihlala phantsi ziyixovule ziyihlaziya endaweni yokuyishenxisa. Mhlawumbi ke ziqhubele phambili ngokuyisebenzisa ngethemba lokuba iyakubangcono ngokuya kuhamba ixesha isetyenziswa.

Inzululwazi yindlela yokufumana ulwazi ngoku shenxisa into engeyonyaniso.

Iingcali kufuneka ziqaphele ngokukodwa xa zinika ingcaciso engqamene naloo nto bayifunde beyijonge ngamehlo baza benza nomlinganiselo wayo. Bayakhuphisana ingulowo nalowo ufuna ukuza nenkcazo engcono. Ingcaciso isenokuba yenika umdla okanye yeyonelisayo, kodwa ukuba ayingqinelani noko kubonwa nokusele kulinganiswe zezinye iingcali, ziyakusuke zizame ukuba zifumane enye inkcazelo engcono

Phambi kokuba ibe linokupapashwa iphepha lobunzululwazi, iingcali ziqala zilifunde kuqala, zize zijonge okokuba ingaba le nkcazelo enikwe kweli phepha iyangqinelana na nale ifumaneka kuloo nto kuthethwa ngayo. sitsho sithethe ngengokuphicothwa kwephepha lusapho lwakwanzululwazi okanye zezinye iingcali. Emva kokuba epapashiwe amaphepha, kuyakubakho ezinye kwakhona iingcali eziya kujongisisa okokuba kusetyenziswe kwa ezi ndlela zovavanyo kusini na, kukwaphicothwe kwangendlela efanayo xa bekuphandwa, okanye kwenziwe uvavanyo olukwafana noluya, ngeenjongo zokubona okokuba ingaba iziphumo zizakufana kusini na. kuphicothwa kwephepha lusapho lwakwanzululwazi okanye zezinye iingcali] kunye nophinda-phindo lwezifundo okanye amalinge okufunda into akukuphela kwendlela yokuqinisekisa ubunyani nokuchaneka obukulwazi oluare the only way to be sure the knowledge is nokuchaneka correct kolwazi oluphandiweyo.

Inzululwazi yenza imizekelo efumaneka kwindalo, [[models of our universe}imizekelo efumaneka kweli hlabathi]], kunyenamachiza. Zininzi ke iintlobo-ntlobo ezifumaneka kwanzululwazi, kunjalo nje zinamagama azo. Nangona kunjalo, akufuneki ukuthi "inzululwazi ithi" nayiphi na into. Inzululwazi yinkqubo, akuyonyaniso okanye ingqokolela yenyaniso nje kuphela, kungeyomithetho ekukholelwa kuyo ngaxesha nye.

Ezinye iintlobo zenzululwazi[tshintsha | edit source]

* Ezendalo

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  • "science". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=science&allowed_in_frame=0. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
  • 2.0 2.1 Wilson, Edward O. (1998) Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1st ed.) New York, NY: Vintage Books pp. 49–71 ISBN 0-679-45077-7 
  • "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. Kwafunyaniswa okokuba indalo jikelele iziphinda-phinda ngokwaneleyo, ngokokude ibonakale okokuba isenokuchazwa icalu-calulwe ngokwemithetho echaziweyo nditsho naziingcali zeMathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions." —p.vii, J. L. Heilbron, (2003, editor-in-chief). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511229-6.
  • Template:Cite dictionary
  • Heilbron J.L. 2003. The Oxford companion to the history of modern science. New York: Oxford University Press, vii. ISBN 0-19-511229-6.
    "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions".
  • "Online dictionary". Merriam-Webster. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/science. Retrieved 2009-05-22. "knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method..."
  • Popper, Karl (2002) [1959] The Logic of Scientific Discovery (2nd English edition ed.) New York, NY: Routledge Classics p. 3 ISBN 0-415-27844-9 OCLC 59377149 
  • Oxford English Dictionary
  • The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.