Ukungondleki

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Ukungondleki
UkungondlekiIribhoni eorenji—iribhoni yokulumkisa ngokungondleki.
Iribhoni eorenji—iribhoni yokulumkisa ngokungondleki.
Uhlelo nezibonelelo zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-9263.9 263.9
MedlinePlus000404

Ukungondleki yimeko ebangelwa kukutya ukutya [okungenazondlo]] zaneleyo okanye okunezondlo ezininzi gqitha kangangokude zibangele iingxaki zempilo.[1][2] Izondlo ezibandakanyekileyo zinokuquka: iikhalori, iprotini, iikhabhohayidreti, iivitamin okanye iiminerali.[2] Zidla ngokusetyenziswa ngokukhethekileyo ukubhekisela ekungondlekini apho kungekho zikhalori zaneleyo, iiprotini okanye iimicronutrients; noko ke, ikwaquka ukondleka ngokugqithiseleyo.[3][4] Ukuba ukungondleki kuvela ebudeni mhlawumbi kokukhulelwa okanye ngaphambi kweminyaka emibini ubudala kunokubangela iingxaki ezingapheliyo zokukhula komzimba nengqondo.[2] Ukungondleki okungaphaya kwengqondo, okubizwa ngokuba kukulamba, kunokuba neempawu eziquka: ubufutshane, ukuncipha komzimba, ukungabi namandla, nemilenze nesisu esidumbileyo.[2][3] Kanti abantu badla ngokufumana izigulo yaye basoloko begodola. Iimpawu zokungabi naziimicronutrient zixhomekeka kwiimicronutrient ezingekhoyo.[3]

Ukungondleki kudla ngokubangelwa ubukhulu becala kukungabikho ngokwaneleyo kokutya okukumgangatho ophezulu.[5] Ixesha elininzi oku kunxulumene namaxabiso aphezulu okutya nendlala.[2][5] Ukungancanciswa kunokuba negalelo, kanye njengeqela lezifo ezosulelayo ezifana: [nokudumba kwesisu namathumbu]], inyumoniya, imalariya nemasisi nto leyo eyandisa imfuneko yezondlo.[5] Kukho iindidi ezimbini eziphambili zokungondleki: ukungondleki kokuswela iprotini namandla nokuswela izondlo.[4] Ukungondleki kokuswela iprotini namandla kuneendidi ezimbini ezimandla: imarasmus (nokuswela iprotini neekhalori) kwakunye nekwashiyoko (ukuswela nje iprotini).[3] Ukuswela iimicronutrient eziqhelekileyo kuquka: ukuswela iayon, iayodin kunye ivitamin A.[3] Ebudeni bokukhulelwa, ngenxa yokwanda kwemfuneko, ziba ninzi izinto oziswelayo.[6] Kwamanye amazwe asakhasayo ukondleka okugqithiseleyo okubonakala ngokutyeba ngokugqithiseleyo kubonakala kubakho kwiindawo ezifanayo nokungondleki.[7] Abanye oonobangela bokungondleki baquka ianorexia nervosa nebariatric surgery.[8][9] Kubantu abasele bekhulile ukungondleki kuxhaphaka kakhulu ngenxa yenkalo zomzimba, ezengqondo nezokuhlala.[10]

Imigudu yokuphucula izondlo iyenye yezona ndlela zisebenzayo zoncedo lophuhliso.[11] Ukuncancisa kunokunciphisa imilinganiselo yokungondleki nokufa kwabantwana,[2] nemigudu yokukhuthaza olu qheliselo iyanda.[12] Kubantwana abancinane ukubanika ukutya ukongezelela kubisi lwebele phakathi kweenyanga ezintandathu neminyaka emibini kuphucula imiphumo.[12] Kukwakho nobungqina obuhle obuxhasa ukongezelela inani lezondlo ezincinane ebudeni bokukhulelwa nakubantwana abancinane kumazwe asakhasayo.[12] Ukusa ukutya kubantu abakudinga kakhulu ukukuthuthela kubo nokubanika imali ukuze abantu bathenge ukutya kwimarike ezikufutshane nabo kunceda kakhulu.[11][13] Ukusuka nje utyise abantu ezikolweni akwanelanga.[11] Ukulawulwa kokungondleki okumandla emakhayeni abantu ukutya okulungele ukusetyenziswa okondlayo kuyenzeka amaxesha amaninzi.[12] Kwabo banokungondleki okumandla okwenziwa kuthi kratya zezinye izigulo unyango luyanconyelwa.[12] Oku kusoloko kuquka ukulawula umlinganiselo ophantsi weswekile, ubushushu bomzimba, ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni, nokutya ngokuthe ngcembe.[12][14] Ukukhutshwa ngokuqhubekayo kwee-antibhayotiki kudla ngokunconyelwa ngenxa yengozi enkulu yokosulelwa.[14] Amanyathelo exesha elide aquka: ukuphucula ezolimo,[15] ukunciphisa ubuhlwempu, ukuphucula ugutyulo, kunye ukunikwa kwamabhinqa amandla.[11]

Kwakukho abantu abangondlekanga abazizigidi eziyi-925 ehlabathini ngo-2010, ukwanda kwe-80 yezigidi ukususela ngo-1990.[16][17] Enye ibhiliyoni yabantu kuqikelelwa ukuba iswele iivithamini neminerali.[11] Ngo-2010 ukuswela iprotini namandla kuqikelelwa ukuba kuye kwaphumela ekufeni kwabantu abayi-600,000 okuhle nge-883,000 ngo-1990.[18] Okunye ukuswela izondlo, okuquka ukuswela iayodin kunye nokuswela iiseli ezibomvu ngenxa yokungabi na-ayoni, kuye kwabangela ukufa kwabanye abantu abayi-84,000.[18] Ukususela ngo-2010 ukungondleki kwakungunobangela wako konke okuyi-1.4% ukukhubazeka kobomi.[11][19] Malunga nesithathu sokufa kwabantwana kukholelwa ukuba kubangelwa kukungondleki; noko ke ukufa akufane kuchazwe njengonobangela.[5] Ngo-2010 kwakuqikelelwa ukuba ukungondleki kuye kwanegalelo ekufeni kwamabhinqa nabantwana abamalunga ne-1.5 lezigidi[20] nangona abanye beqikelela ukuba elo nani lingalikhulu kunezigidi eziyi-3 .[12] Abantwana abangakumbi abayi- 165  abakhuli kakuhle ngenxa yesi sifo.[12] Ukungondleki kuxhaphake ngakumbi kumazwe asakhasayo.[21]

Iimbekiselo[tshintsha | edit source]

  1. "malnutrition" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Izibakala zobomi (4th ed. ed.) New York: Ingxowa-mali Yabantwana YeZizwe Ezimanyeneyo 2010 pp. 61 and 75 ISBN 978-92-806-4466-1 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Young, E.M. (2012) Ukutya nokukhula Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge pp. 36–38 ISBN 9781135999414 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Impilo Ezibalulekileyo KwiMpilo Ehlabathini Jones & Bartlett Publishers 2011 p. 194 ISBN 9781449667719 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health". http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/malnutrition/en/. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  6. Konje, editor, Mala Arora ; co-editor, Justin C. (2007) Ukuphunyelwa sisisu ngokuphindiweyo (2nd ed. ed.) New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers ISBN 9788184480061 
  7. "Inkqubela Yabantwana: Ikhadi Lengxelo Ngezondlo". UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/InkqubelaYabantwana_-_No._4.pdf.
  8. Prentice, editor-in-chief, Benjamin Caballero ; editors, Lindsay Allen, Andrew (2005) Encyclopedia of human nutrition (2nd ed. ed.) Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press p. 68 ISBN 9780080454283 
  9. Stoelting's anesthesia and co-existing disease (6th ed. ed.) Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier 2012 p. 324 ISBN 9781455738120 
  10. editors, Ronnie A. Rosenthal, Michael E. Zenilman, Mark R. Katlic, (2011) Imigaqo nokwenziwa kotyando lwejeriyatriki (2nd ed. ed.) Berlin: Springer p. 78 ISBN 9781441969996 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 "An update of ‘The Neglected Crisis of Undernutrition: Evidence for Action’". Department for International Development. Oct 2012. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67319/undernutrition-finalevidence-oct12.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Bhutta, ZA; Das, JK; Rizvi, A; Gaffey, MF; Walker, N; Horton, S; Webb, P; Lartey, A; Black, RE; Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review, Group; Maternal and Child Nutrition Study, Group (Aug 3, 2013) "Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?" Lancet 382 (9890): 452–77 PMID 23746776 doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60996-4 
  13. "Isicwangciso Sehlabathi Sokutya, Imali Namakhadi Okutya". April 2012. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp246176.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Imiyalelo yokunyangwa kwezigulana ezingabantwana ezilaliswe ngenxa yokungondleki okumandla Geneva: INtlangano Yehlabathi Yezempilo 2003 ISBN 9241546093 
  15. Jonathan A. Foley, Navin Ramankutty, Kate A. Brauman, Emily S. Cassidy, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Christine O’Connell, Deepak K. Ray, Paul C. West, Christian Balzer, Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter, Jason Hill1, Chad Monfreda, Stephen Polasky1, Johan Rockström, John Sheehan, Stefan Siebert, David Tilman1, David P. M. Zaks (October 2011) "Solutions for a cultivated planet" Nature 478 (7369): 337–342 PMID 21993620 doi:10.1038/nature10452 
  16. "Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high International hunger targets difficult to reach". September 2010. http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/al390e/al390e00.pdf. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  17. Food; (FAO), Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008) The state of food insecurity in the world, 2008 : high food prices and food security : threats and opportunities Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) p. 2 ISBN 978-92-5-106049-0 "Uqikelelo lwakutshanje lweFAO lubeka amanani abantu abalambileyo [eneneni, abangondlekanga] kwizigidi eziyi-923 ngo-2007, ukwanda kwezigidi ezingaphezu kwe-80 ukususela ngethuba lika-1990–92." 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. (December 2012) "Ukufa ehlabathini nakwiindawo ezithile ukususela koonobangela abayi-235 bokufa kubudala obuyi-20 ngo-1990 no-2010: uhlolo oluchuliweyo Lophando luka-2010 Lomthwalo Obangelwa Kukugula Ehlabathini 2010" Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128 PMID 23245604 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0 
  19. Murray, CJ (Dec 15, 2012) "Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010." Lancet 380 (9859): 2197–223 PMID 23245608 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4 
  20. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. (December 2012) "Uhlolo lokuthelekisa ingozi yomthwalo wezifo nokwenzakala okusolwa kwiinkalo eziyi-67 zengozi kwimimandla eyi-21, 1990-2010: uhlolo oluchuliweyo loMthwalo Obangelwa Zizifo Ehlabathini Lonke ngo-2010" Lancet 380 (9859): 2224–60 PMID 23245609 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8 
  21. Liz Young (2002) World Hunger Routledge Introductions to Development p. 20 ISBN 9781134774944