U-Winnie Madikizela Mandela

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U-Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (Owaziwa nanjengo-Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela; wazalwa ngomhla wama-26 kweyoMsintsi ngo1936 – wasishiya ngomhla wesi-2 kuTshazimpuzi ngo2018) Igama lakhe lobuntombi nguWinifred Zanyiwe Nomzamo Madikizela, wazalwa ngomhla wama-26 kweyomSintsi (kuSeptemba) ka1936. Xa sithetha ngale nzwakazi sithetha ngetsha-ntliziyo kwezopolitiko elalibambe izikhundla ezininzi kurhulumente wentando yesininzi. Wayekwakhokhele umbutho wamanina kaKhongolose. Wayekwalelinye lamalungu aphambili esigqeba sekomiti yeANC. Wasweleka ngomhlla wesi-2 ku-Epreli ka2018 eGoli okanye eRhawutini.

Iqela lokuqala[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ebutsheni bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

uMam’uWinnie wazalelwa eMbizana eMpuma Koloni ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesi thandathu(26) kweyoMsintsi ngonyaka we-1936. Umama uWinnie wazalwa ngutata uColumbus Kokani nomama uGetrude Nomathamsanqa Madikizela ababe ngabafundisi-ntsapho. Ebutsheni bakhe waye wafudukela eRhawutini nalapho wabangunontlalo-ntle wezempilo ontsundu wokuqala kwisibhedlele saseSoweto iChris Hani Baragwanath esasisaziwa njenge Baragwanath ngoko. Uphando kwizinga lokubhubha kweentsana kwilokisi yase Alexandra eRhawutini kwakunye namanye amava engcinezelo eMzantsi Afrika athi amtsalela ukuba abe litsha-ntliziyo.

Ingcinezelo

uMam’uWinnie umele isizukulwana seenkokheli zeli loMzantsi-Afrika kunye nabantu basetyhini abantsundu abebejongene nenkohlakalo yombuso wengcinezelo ngenxa yezenzo zabo zopolitiko .Wanyamezela ukuxhatshazwa ezandleni zamapolisa okhuseleko engcinezelo ngexa ejongene nokungcungcutheka ngethuba esentolongweni. Noxa wayenyamezele iintlungu ezingenako ukulityalwa, akazange azivumele ukuba zimohlukanisa nobutsha-ntliziyo kunye nobuntu bakhe. Kude kwasekupheleni, uMam’uWinnie ephakamisa ilizwi lakhe ekuxhaseni utshintsho olubalulekileyo kuluntu lwase Mzantsi Afrika. Wayebanga umthetho wentlalo, waphela emela iminqweno namaphupha abo bahluphekayo nabasweleyo belizwe lethu.

Iqela lesibini[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ebutsheni bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Umama uWinnie wazalwa ngutata uColumbus Kokani nomama uGetrude Nomathamsanqa Madikizela ababe ngabafundisi-ntsapho. Ebutsheni bakhe waye wafudukela eRhawutini nalapho wabangunontlalo-ntle wezempilo ontsundu wokuqala kwisibhedlele saseSoweto iChris Hani Baragwanath esasisaziwa njenge Baragwanath ngoko. Uphando kwizinga lokubhubha kweentsana kwilokisi yase Alexandra eRhawutini kwakunye namanye amava engcinezelo eMzantsi Afrika athi amtsalela ukuba abe litsha-ntliziyo. Ngomhla we-14 kwinyanga yeSilimela ngonyaka we-1958 wazimanya ngeqhina lomtshato notata uNelson Rholihlahla Mandela, baza balizwa ngeentombi ezimbini, uZenani noZindziswa. Ukuxhatshazwa kwabo ngamapolisa, iintlanganiso zombutho we ANC, izenzo zoqhankqalazo kwakunye namatyala omthetho yaba zizinto ezathi zaphembelela iingxaki kubomi babo bokuqala emtshatweni.

Ingcinezelo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Kwinyanga yeDwarha kunyaka we-1958, umama uWinnie wathabatha inxaxheba kumngcelele wabantu basetyhini olwaluququzelelwe ngumama uLillian Ngoyi, umama uAlbertina Sisulu kwakunye nabanye. Ngexesha lomngcelele amapolisa aye abamba abantu basetyhini abangaphezulu kwe Waka. Umama uWinnie nabanye bachitha iiveki ezimbini entolongweni nje ngophawu lokuqhubekeka nomngcelele. Yaba sesi siganeko esakhokelelwa ekubeni umama uWinnie abe yinkokheli ephume izandla kwezopolitiko.

Iqela lesithathu[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ixesha lengcinezelo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ebedlala indima yobukhokheli kuphulo lwe ‘We stand by our leaders’ exhasa amabanjwa onyaka we-1956 ukuya kunyaka we-1991. Phakathi kwamathenjwa akhe kwakukho umama uNgoyi ehamba nomama uHelen Joseph ingabo bobabini abantu basetyhini ababebekwe ityala. Ukusukela ngo-1961 ebexhomekeke kwinqubo zemiyalelo ezisemthethweni eziphantse azaphazanyiswa, eziye zamvalela isakhono sakhe sokusebenza nokunxibelelana. Ngo-1962 uye walahlekelwa ngumnyeni wakhe owayevalelwe ixesha elide entilongweni waze wadibana naye ngo-1990. Umama uWinnie wayesoloko exhatshazwa, engcungcuthekiswa. Kwaye abantwana bakhe babengamaxhoba ngo-1962. Wayengavumelekanga phantsi kwe-Suppression of Communission Act, ngexesha wayevalelekile e-Orlando, eSoweto.

Iqela lesine[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Le nto yathintela iintshukumo zakhe kwisithili soomantyi sase-Johannesburg, amvalela ekungeneni kwiingcango zemfundo kwakunye nasekuthabatheni inkxaxheba athethe nakweyiphi na intlanganiso akanye imihlangano enabantu abangaphezulu kwesibini.Wasebenzela i-ANC emfihlakalweni ehamba iintlanganiso washicilela ehambisa amaphetshana phantsi kovalelo lwasendlini ngonyaka we-1970. Ngenxa yokuphinda-phinda ukuphikisana nemithetho awayeyinikiwe, ngonyaka we-1965 wabaqatha umthetho omthintela ukuba ahambe aphume e-Orlando West. Iziphumo zale mithetho yabakukuphulukana nomsebenzi wakhe nje ngonontlalontle. Ngobusuku bomhla we-12 kuTshazimpuzi ngonyaka we-1969, uMam’Winnie nosapho lwakhe bavuswa yingxolo eqhelekileyo yokugaleleka kwamapolisa. Amapolisa amohlukanisa nabantwana bakhe phantsi komthetho wonyaka we-1967 wobunqolobi. Waye wohlwaywa ngokubekwa yedwa iintsuku ezingama-491 ( ezizinyanga ezili-17) phantsi komgaqo wobunqolobi.

Ixesha lengcinezelo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ngethuba umama uWinnie akhululwe ngalo entolongweni, kubekho imithetho engqingqwa eyayirhintyela iintshukumo zakhe. Ngaphandle kwezithintelo zomthetho, ukwazile ukuyombona umyeni wakhe eRobben island ngexesha elingangemizuzu engamashumi amathathu. Kwinyanga kaCanzibe ngonyaka we-1973, waye wabanjwa wanikwa isigwebo seenyanga ezilishumi elinambini kwintolongo igamalayo liyi Kroonstad Women’s Prison. Uye wakhululwa emva kweenyanga ezintandathu ngokothusayo imithetho yorhintyelo ngakuye zange ihlaziywe. Umama uWinnie uye wasebenzisana noGqirha Nthato Motlana ukusuka iSoweto Parents Association ngonyaka we-1976 kwinyanga kaCanzibe. Babexakekile lulutsha kunye nabazali ababebanjiwe, nabalimeleyo kuqhankqalazo kunye nababuleweyo kwinyanga yeSilimela kunyaka we-1976. Emveni kokulandelela uqhankqalazo lwabafundi eSoweto, waye wabaselugcinweni ngaphandle kokubekwa ityala kangangeenyanga ezintlanu, kwaze kweyoMqungu ngonyaka we-1977 wanikwa imithetho emitsha emnyanzelisayo ukuba aye elubhacweni eBredfort kwiphondo lase Freyistata.

Inguqulelo kwiDemokhrasi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ngazo zonke iindlela, ukunqunyaniselwa kukamama uWinnie eBrandfort kwabuyelisa umva abacinezeli. Ngethuba wayeseBrandfort wamisela iiprojecti eziliqela kuquka iiprojecti zolimo, ezempilo, ezothungo lwempahla, ezogcino lwabantwana, iprojecti yokuphekela abantu abangathathi ntweni, wavula nekhaya lokugcina abantwana abangenabazali nabantwana abophula imithetho. Umama uWinnie akazange awuthobele umthetho owayewumiselwe, waze wabuyela eSoweto kwiminyaka yama-1980 wadlala indima enkulu kakhulu kumzabalazo ochasa ingcinezelo. Iminyaka yama-1980 yaphawulwa ngumzabalazo woluntu nayimfumba yabantu abathatha inxaxheba kulo mzabalazo kuMzantsi Afrika jikelele, ikhokhelwa ngumama uWinnie ubuqu, eSoweto. uRhulumente wengcinezelo wabuyisela ngobundlobongela obumandla kuba waye wafaka amajoni kwiilokishi wabhengeza izimo zokungxamisiseka ezimbini. Ukuzimisela kukamama uWinne kumzabalazo woluntu ingakumbi owabasetyhini, kwamkhokhela ekubeni onyulwe ngonyaka we-1993 abengumongameli wombutho wamanina we-ANC kwaye emva koko waphinda wonyulwa kwakhona leliqela ngonyaka we-1997 waliphatha de kwafika unyaka wama-2003.

Amawonga neembasa[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Emveni konyaka we-1994, wachongwa nje ngosekela Mphathiswa wobugcisa, inkcubeko, nzululwazi nobuchwepheshe. Kunyaka we-1984, washicelela incwadi ethi-Part Of My Soul waphinda ngonyaka wama-2013 washicelela incwadi ethi-491: Prisoner Number 1323/69 eyayibhekiswe kumzukulwana wakhe ongasekhoyo uZenani. Isekelwe kwi-jenali awayibhala ngemfihlo ngexesha lakhe eseluvalelweni. Kule ncwadi, uthetha ngentlungu ngokuhlukaniswa nabantwana bakhe nange ndlela eyambumba ngayo wabanguye. Umama u-Winnie wayelibhinqa lase-Afrika elizingcayo elazondelela ekulweni ukungabikho kobulungisa kwilizwe lakhe. Wayesazi ukuba yayingumsebenzi ongenambulelo kwaye zange anyamezele ubunzima ngeenjongo zokuzuza uzuko, koko wayefuna inkululeko yabantu bakhe. Wazimelisa uninzi lolutsha lamatsha-ntliziyo elalizibandekanye nenkululeko nobulungisa eluntwini. Ngale ndima wawongwa njengoMongameli obekekileyo wanaphakade we-Congress Of South African Students. Umama u-Winnie ushiya ngasemva: IiNkosazana ezibekekileyo uZenani Dlamini noZindziswa Mandela; abazukulwana bakhe: uZaziwe, uZamaswazi, uZinhle, uZoleka, uZondwa, uBambatha, uZozuko and uZwelabo: isizukulwane sakhe: uZiyanda, uZiphokazi, uZwelami, uZamakhosi, uZazi, uZiwelane, uZenkosi, uZanyiwe, uZinokuhle, uZiyalo noZenzelwe.