Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje

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USolomon Tshekisho Plaatje (waazalwa ngomhla wesi-9 October 1876 – wasweleka ngomhla we-19 June 1932) wayeyinkcubabuchopho yasemZantsi Afrika, ekwayintatheli, eyingcali kwizifundo eziphicotha iilwimi, engusopolitiki, ekwayitoliki ekwaziyo ukuyibeka ngolunye ulwimi intetho eyenziweyo okanye ebhaliweyo. Loo mfo wayekwangumbhali ophum'izandla. UPlaatje wayelelinye lamalungu kwanososiba jikelele wokuqala wombutho weenzalelwane zeSizwe sasemZantsi Afrika (SANNC), mbutho lowo ungukhongolose (ANC) namhlanje. UMasipalathi ongurhulumente wengingqi iSol Plaatje, ubandakanya isixeko saseKimberley, ubizwe ngegama lakhe, nje ngeYunivesithi iSol Plaatje kwakwesi siXeko, esavulwa ngokusesikweni ngo-2014.[1]

Ebuntwaneni bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UPlaatje waazalelwa eDoornfontein near Boshof, Orange Free State (now Free State Province, South Africa), the sixth of eight sons.Template:Sfn His grandfather's name was Selogilwe Mogodi (1836-1881) but his employer, the Boer farmer Groenewald, nicknamed him Plaatje in 1856 and the family started using this as a surname. Abazali bakhe uJohannes kunye noMartha babengabelizwe lasebuTswana. BabengamaKrestu besebenza kwisitishi sasemishini, besebenzela amamishinari emZantsi Afrika. Waathi xa aminyaka mine uSolomon, usapho lwakhe lwafudukela ePniel kufuphi naseKimberly kumNtla koloni eKapa lusiya kusebenzeka ummishinari waseJamani, uErnst Westphal, nenkosikazi yakhe uWilhelmine. Kulapho wafumana khona imfundo yasemishini. Waathi akuqgwesa bonke abafundi, waanikwa uchatha wezifundo zabucala ezinikwa nguNkosikazi. Westphal, ikwayile nkosikazi eyamfundisa ukudlala i-piano kunye ne-violini, waba sele emnika nezifundo zomculo. Template:Sfn Ngenyanga yomDumba ngo-1892, waye-15 leminyaka ubudala, wabangutishala efundisa abantwana, isikhundla wawasibamba iminyaka emibini.

Emva kokuba eshiyile esikolweni, waafudukela eKimberley ngo-1894, apho wayakuba |ngunoposi owayeqeshwe yi-Ofisi yePosi ukuba ahambise iimbalelwano zocingo (iitelegram). Template:Sfn Ngokufutshane nje emva koko waphumelela uviwo lokuba ngumabhalane. Waaba ngoyena ufumana amanqaku aphezulu ukodlula wonke umntu owabhala olo viwo kule Koloni elubhala ngolwimi lwesiDatshi aze aphinde abhale ngo kuchwetheza (ngokwengxelo eyanikwa nguNeil Parsons kumazwi akhe okuvula kwiUbomi beenzalelwane zasemZantsi Afrika, Phambi nangeminyaka okoko kwangeemfazwe zaseYurophu novukelo lwamabhulu).Template:Sfn ngelo xesha, ikoloni yaseKapa yayise inikele ngeziqinisekiso zorhwebo kuwo onke amadoda awayeneminyaka engama-21 nangaphezulu, esi siqinisekiso sasinikwa umntu okwaziyo ukufunda nokubhala isiNgesi kunye nesiDatshi. Lowo ke wayesamkela iiponti ezingama-50 ngonyaka. Wathi xa egqiba ama-21 eminyaka ubudala ngo-1897, wakwazi ukuvota, lungelo elo awathi kamva waliphucwa, ukuphela kolawulo lwaseBritane. Template:Sfn

Ngokufutshane emvakoko, waabayitoliki yeenkundla zamatyala zoosomagunya baseBritane ngexesha lokuvingcelwa kweMafeking waza wazibhala kwincwadana yakhe awayezazi ngokwamava akhe, nezathi zapapashwa kamva. {sfn|Van Wyk|2003|p=}}

Emva kwemfazwe, wayeqinisekile okokuba amaBritane ayakuqhubeka ezikhupha iziqinisekiso ezinika onke amadoda, kodwa wona amaBritatane awanika abamhlophe kuphela amalungelo ezopolitiko ngo-1910 UManyano lomZantsi Afrika. UPlaatje waawagxeka amaBritane kuxwebhu olwalungapapashwanga lwango-1909, olwalusihloko salo sithi,"Sekgoma – Ukucalucalulwa kwabamnyama."Template:Sfn

Igalelo ngokwesiphiwo sakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Abathunywa beNkongolo yeeNzalelwane zeSizwe sasemZantsi Afrika bethunywa eNgilane, ngeyeSilimela ngo-1914. Ukusuka ngasekhohlo ukuya ngasekunene: UThomas Mapike, umf. Walter Rubusana, umf. John Dube, uSaul Msane, uSol Plaatje

Njengetshantliziyo kwezopolitiko, phantse bonke ubomi bakhe ubuchithe ekulwelweni iziqinisekiso nenkululeko yeenzalelwane zaseAfrika. Waba lelinye lamalungu elaqala umButho weeNzalelwane zeSizwe sasemZantsi Afrika waza waba ngusosiba jikelele wawo lo mbutho, owathi ekuhambeni kwethuba emva kweminyaka elishumi wabizwa ngokuba nguKhongolose UMbutho wesizwe saseAfrika (ANC). Njengelungu elaliphakathi kwabathunywa, waahamba waya e-Ngilani esiyakuqhankqalazela Umthetho womhlaba weenzalelwane, wango-1913, wathi kamva waya eKhanada nasenakumazwe aseMelika apho waadibana khona noMarcus Garvey noW. E. B. Du Bois.

njengokuba wayekhule ethetha ulwimi lwesiTswana, uPlaatje wayethetha iilwimi ngeelwimi. Ezithetha ngokusulungekileyo iilwimi ezisixhenxe, waasebenza njengetoliki yeenkundla zamatyala ngexesha lokurhangqwa kweMafeking, waza wayibeka ngolwimi lwesiTswana imisebenzi kaWilliam Shakespeare. Esi sakhona nesiphiwo sakhe sokwazi iilwimi okaPlaatji sasingambeka kwinqanaba lobuntatheli nokubhala. Wayekwangumhleli ekwabambisene ngokuba ngumnikazi we'Kuranta ya Becoana (Bechuana Gazette) eMahikeng, naseKimberley Tsala ya Becoana (Bechuana Friend) kunye neTsala ya Batho (Umhlobo wabantu).

UPlaatje wabangumntu wokuqala omnyama emZantsi afrika ukubhala inoveli ngolwimi lwesiNgesi – Mhudi. wayibhala le noveli ngo-1919, kodwa yaapapashwa ngo-1930 (ngo-1928 umbhali ngolwimi lwesiZulu uR. R. R. Dhlomo naye waapapasha inoveli ebhalwe ngolwimi lwesiNgesi, esihloko sayo sithi An African Tragedy/Intlekele yase Afrika, kwindawo yoshicilelo ekuyimishini yaseLovedale, eAlice; oku kweenza ukuba inoveli kaDlomo kube yinoveli yokuqala emZantsi Afrika ukupapashwa ngesiNgesi, ngoku kanye inoveli kaPlaatjie ethiMhudi yayibhalwe kuqala kuna le. Waaphinda wabhala incwadi esihloko sayo sithiNative Life in South Africa - Ubomi benzalelwane emZantsi Afrika, ncwadi leyo eyanconywa nguNeil Parsons, eyichaza njenge"nye yeencwadi ezibaluleke kakhulu eAfrika, ebhalwe ngomnye wababhali abahlonitshwayo kwilizwekazi laseAfrika",Template:Sfn kunye nencwadi yeenkcukacha zemfazwe yamabbhulu eyapapashwa okokuqala emva kwama-40 eminyaka walandulelayo eli.

Indima yakhe nje ngomdlali weqonga[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Isiqendu somdalo weqonga othiCradle of the World, 1923. USol Plaatje umi phakathi kumbini weqonga.

UPlaatje waandwendwela eBritani izihlandlo ezintathu. Kulapho wadibana khona nabantu abaninzi ababenezimvo ezifana nezakhe. Omnye wayenguququzeleli wemidlalo yoomabonakuthe uGeorge Lattimore owathi ngo-1923 waququzelela umboniso bhanya-bhanya oyi-Pathé, Cradle of the World, "owona mdlalo wakhe wonwabisa nonika umdla kwimidlalo eyakhe yashicilelwa". Kwincwadi eyayisiya kumbutho wamaAfrika kwihlabathi jikelele uW. E. B. Du Bois, uLattimore echaza okokuba unommsebenzi oyimpumelelo kwiholo lasePhilharmonic elondon.[2] Umboniso, owawuneempawu zomnyhadala, owawuquka ukudlalwa kweengoma nomculo. UPlaatje waakhwetywa nguLattimore ukuba azekudlala indawo yokuba yindoda yomAfrika evela ezilalini.[3]

Ubomi bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UPlaatje wayengumKrestu ozinikeleyo,[4] ikwanguye owayila iqela labalandeli elalibizwa ngokuba ngaBazalwane bamaKrestu aseKimberley. wayetshate noElizabeth Lilith M'belle, umanyano olwavelisa abantwana abathandathu – uFrederick York St Leger, uHalley, uRichard, Violet, uOlive kunye noJohannes Gutenberg. Wasutywa kukufa ngenxa yokungenwa yingqele ePimville, eGoli ngomhla we-19 kweSilimela, ngo-1932, eminyaka ingama-56, waangcwatyelwa eKimberley. Babengaphaya kwewaka abantu ababezimase loo mngcwabo.Template:Sfn

Imbeko awayinikwayo nomzila awawushiyayo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  • Ngo-1935: kwiminyaka emithathu emva kokuba eswelekile, ilitye lesikhumbuzo lalakhewe phezu kwengcwaba lakhe uPlaatje linombhalo othi: "I Khutse Morolong: Modiredi Wa Afrika – lala ngoxolo Morolong, siCaka saseAfrika".Template:Sfn

Kwaaqala kwadlula amashumi ngamashumi eminyaka phambi kokuba lo kaPlaatji anikwe iwonga elimfaneleyo. "Inkoliso yezinto awazilwelayo zabekwa eaweni," ebhala ngobomi bakhe uBrian Willan, "Ikamva lakhe negalelo lakhe kwezepolitiko beselisiya lilibaleka, imisebenzi yakhe awayibhalayo yaalahleka eminye yatshatyalaliswa, iincwadi zakhe ezapapashwayo azifundwa ubukhulu becala. Inoveli yakhe ethiMhudi ayikho kuluhlu lwencwadi ezingesithethe sakwantu, kwaye ithuba elide le ncwadi yayithathwa nje ngencwadi yeendaba zomgosi."Template:Sfn

  • Ngo-1970s: waqala ukuvela umdla kubuntatheli nokubhala kwakhe uPlaatjie kumsebenzi kaJohn Comaroff (owayehlela okubhaliweyo phambi kokuba kupapashwe Incwadana kaSol plaatjie engemilo yamaBhulu - The Boer War Diary of Sol T. Plaatje,Template:Sfn nakumsebenzi kaTim Couzens no Stephen Gray (owazinika ithuba lokujongana nenoveli kaSol Plaatjie, ethi MhudiTemplate:SfnTemplate:SfnTemplate:Sfn)
  • Ngo-1978: inoveli ethi Mhudi yaapapashwa kwakhona phantsi kweliso lomhleli uStephen Gray[5]
  • Ngo-1982: umsebenzi kaPlaatje phantsi kwesihloko esithiNative Life in South Africa: Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (1916) waaphinde wapapashwa nguRavan Press.[6]
  • Ngo-1982: INtlangano yaBabhali baseAfrika yaabundukunya iziko lembasa yombongo kaPlaatji (ekunye nembasa yeDrama ka-H. I. E. R. R. R. Dhlomo kunye nembasa yeMbongi enguS. E. K. Mqhayi.[7]
  • Ngo-1984: UBrian Willan waapapasha imbali ngobomi bakhe, phantsi kwesihloko esithiSol Plaatje: South African Nationalist, 1876–1932.Template:Sfn
  • Ngo-1991: iSol Plaatje Educational Trust and Museum, yakhiwa kwikhaya likaPlaatje kwa-32 Angel Street, yaza yandiswa ukuze ivuleke, ngeenjongo zokwandisa imisebenzi yakhe yokubhala njengomzila awawushiyayo.[8]
  • Ngo-1992: Lo mzi ukule dilesi ingasentla ethi 32 Angel Street in Kimberley, kulapho loo kaPlaatji wayichitha khona iminyaka yakhe yokugqibela, waaphakanyiswa waza wemiswa njengesakhiwo sesizwe esisisikhumbuzo (kungoku nje liziko lamagugu amasiko nezithethe ephondweni).[9] Liyaqhuba ukuba lithala leencwadi kwanemuiziyam kaSol Plaatje, eqhutywa ngabaququzeleli bengxowa-mali yezemfundo phantsi kwegama lika Plaatje, ngokweminikelo ngemali. Ngeminyaka yoo-2000 le ngxowa-mali kaSol Plaatje ipapashe iimbali ngobomi bakhe uPlaatji, loo msebenzi usenziwa nguMaureen RallTemplate:Sfn noSabata-Mpho Mokae.Template:Sfn
  • circa 1995: UMasipala iSol Plaatje (eKimberley) kwiPhondo lasemZantsi Afrika kwiNtshona Kapa waathiywa ngoPlaatjie waba ke yindlela anikwa ngayo imbeko.
  • ngo-1998: kumsitho owawubanjiwe egameni likaPlaatjie, apho waathiwa jize ngewonga elikwinqanaba lesidanga sobugqirha elinikezwa abangasekhoyo, ngelimnika imbeko yakhe, msebenzi lowo owenziwa yiYiYunivesithi yaseMntla-Ntshona, phambi kwesizukulwana sakhe esasikho kuloo msitho.[10]
  • Ngo-1998: Ingcwaba likaPlaatjie kwisakhiwo samangcwaba asekuPheleni kweNtshona, eKimberley, lamiswa njengesikhumbuzo sesizwe (kungoku nje ligugu lamasiko nezithethe kwakweli phondo lomNtla-Ntshona).[11] Eli lingcwaba lesibini kwimbali yasemZantsi Afrika ukuwongwa ngesikhumbuzo kwinqanaba lesizwe. [12]
  • Ngo-2000: Umpapashi wemigodi yedayimani wenza umsitho wokunikezela ngeMbasa yesiKhumbuzo sikaSol Plaatjie ukunika imbeka qho ngonyaka, abafundi bebanga lematriki abathe bagqwesa kwizifundo zolwimi lwesiTswana nolwesiNgesi kumNtla-Kapa. Abafundi bokuqala ukufumana le mbasa yaba nguClaire Reddie (kwisiNgesi) kunye noNeo Molefi (kwiSetswana).[13]
  • 2000: Isakhiwo sesebe lezeMfundo esisePitoli saathiywa ngakutsha njengengomzi iSol Plaatje House, ngomhla we-15 kweyeSilimela ngo-2000, "ngelinika imbeko kwesi sithwangube sezopolitiko netitshala egqibeleleyo."[8]
  • Ngo-2000: Iposi yasemZantsi Afrika yaakhupha uthotho lwezitampu ezazinomfanekiso yababhali beMfazwe yamabhulu, loo mifanekiso yayinoPlaatjie ibonakala kwisitampu sexabiso elili-1.30 ngokweRandi. Olu ludwe lukwabandakanya uNkosiArthur Conan Doyle, Winston Churchill, Johanna Brandt nembasa yemfazwe phakathi kwamaNgesi namaBhulu.[14]
  • Ngo-2000: Umbutho kaKhongolose yaaqala imbasa engegama likaSol Plaatje, enye yeembasa ezikhutshwa qho ngonyaka ikhutshelwa ngengeenjongo zokukhuthaza abo bathe baphumelela. Le mbasa kaSol plaatjie ijolise kweyona ngingqi okanye isebe le-ANC elithe lagqwesa ngokwenza kakuhle.[15]
  • Ngo-2002: Iziko lobunkokheli bosasazo lweSol Plaatjie laayilwa kwiYunivesithi yaseRhodes, kwizifundo zecandelo lezobuntatheli nosasazo. [16]
  • Ngo-2005: idami i-Saulspoort laphinda lathiywa ngakutsha kwathiwa lidami i-Sol Plaatje, although not in honour of Sol Plaatje the man but in remembrance of 41 Sol Plaatje Municipal workers drowned in a bus disaster there on 1 May 2003.[17][18]
  • 2007: the Sol Plaatje Prize for Translation was instituted by the English Academy of South Africa, awarded bi-annually for translation of prose or poetry into English from any of the other South African official languages.
  • 2009: the Sol Plaatje Power Station at the Sol Plaatje Dam was commissioned – the first commercial small hydro power station constructed in South Africa in 22 years.[19][20]
  • 2009: Sol Plaatje was honoured in the Posthumous Literary Award given by the South African Literary Awards.
  • 2010: the first Plaatje Festival, held in Mahikeng, hosted by the North West Province Departments of Sport, Arts and Culture and of Education, on 5 and 6 November 2010. It brought together Plaatje and Molema descendants, poets, journalists, scholars, language practitioners, educators, and learners, who "paid tribute to this brilliant Setswana man of letters."[8]
  • 2010: a statue of Sol Plaatje, seated and writing at a desk, was unveiled in Kimberley by South African President Jacob Zuma on 9 January 2010, the 98th anniversary of the founding of the African National Congress. By sculptor Johan Moolman, it was erected at Kimberley's Civic Centre, formerly the Malay Camp, and situated approximately where Plaatje had his printing press in 1910 – 13.[21]
  • 2011: the European Union Sol Plaatje Poetry Competition was inaugurated, honouring "the spirit of the legendary intellectual giant, Sol Plaatje, the activist, linguist and translator, novelist, journalist and leader." Winners' work has been published in an annual anthology since the competition's inauguration.[22]
  • 2012: Seetsele Modiri Molema's Lover of his people: a biography of Sol Plaatje was published. Translated and edited by D. S. Matjila and Karen Haire, the manuscript, Sol T. Plaatje: Morata Wabo, dating from the 1960s, was the first Plaatje biography written in his mother tongue, Setswana, and the only book-length biography written by someone who actually knew Plaatje.Template:Sfn
  • 2013: the naming of the Sol Plaatje University in Kimberley, which opened in 2014, was announced by President Jacob Zuma on 25 July 2013.[1][23]
  • Ngo-2013: ithala leencwadi laseUNISA kwingingqi yaseFlorida lathiywa ngakutsha ngegama likaSol Plaatjie, unveiled on 30 July 2013.[24]
  • Izikolo zaseKimberley naseMahikeng zithiywe ngegama likaSol Plaatjie.

Iincwadi neminye imisebenzi awayibhala ngokwakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Iincwadi ezazibhalwe ngesiNgesi waza waziguqulela kwisiTswana[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Both of these were called "remarkably good" translations in a 1949 study.Template:Sfn

Imisebenzi ekusekelwe kuwo eli phepha[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 [1]] Umsitho wokuvulwa kwale Yunivesithi intsha wazinyanswa ngentetho kaMongameli weSizwe sasemZantsi Afrika, ngethuba kubhengezwa oosoSiba bethutyana naxa kwakubhengezwa amagama eeYunivesithi ezintsha, 25 July 2013], le ngelo yaakhutshwa ngomhla wama-25 July 2013.
  2. ileta eyayivela kuGeorge W. Lattimore isiya kuW. E. B. Du Bois, ngomhla wama-21 kweyeThupha ngo-1923. kumaphepha ka-W. E. B. Du Bois, credo. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  3. Topp Fargion, Janet. "Sol t Plaatje: The hidden recording", in Playback, Bulletin of the British Library National Sound Archive, No. 12, Autumn 1995, pp. 2-4.
  4. USolomon Tshekisho Plaatje (ongu-Sol Plaatje) Mafikeng Capital City – North West Province South Africa Template:Webarchive at www.tourismnorthwest.co.za
  5. Plaatje, Sol T. 1978 (1930). Mhudi. Ed. Stephen Gray. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Books.
  6. Plaatje, Sol T. Native Life in South Africa: Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion. Johannesburg: Ravan.
  7. The literature police: chronology
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Department of Basic Education: Sol Plaatje House: explanation written by Dr Karen Haire for the Sol Plaatje Educational Trust, 32 Angel Street, Kimberley, 8301, retrieved 26 July 2013.
  9. Government Gazette of South Africa, No. 14048, Pretoria: 19 June 1992.
  10. Reeves, Jacqui (24 April 1998). "Posthumous doctorate for Plaatje". The Star. http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/people/plaatje/star980424.html. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  11. Government Gazette of South Africa, No. 18694, Pretoria: 27 February 1998.
  12. Diamond Fields Advertiser, Wednesday, 17 October 2001, "Tsala ea Batho", Kimberley, p. 10.
  13. Diamond Fields Advertiser. Wednesday 17 October 2001, "Tsala ea Batho", Kimberley, p. 12.
  14. Anglo-Boer War Writers – stamps, Trussel.com.
  15. ANC Annual Achievement Awards. Template:Webarchive
  16. Sol Plaatje Institute retrieved 10 August 2013.
  17. Government Gazette, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, Vol. 478, Pretoria, 1 April 2005, No. 27408; retrieved 16 August 2013.
  18. Drama at bus tragedy service News24.com, 5 May 2003; retrieved 16 August 2013.
  19. "Infrastructure news Article". Infrastructure news. http://www.infrastructurene.ws/2012/05/02/151/. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  20. "Bethlehem Hydro Brochure" (PDF). Bethlehem Hydro. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120129073602/http://www.bethlehemhydro.co.za/docs/Bethlehem_Hydro_Brochure_10.pdf. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  21. Plaatje Statue unveiled, Diamond Fields Advertiser, 11 January 2010, p. 6. (Contrary to Sunday Argus and Independent on Line reports [10 January 2010, at 12:42PM] suggesting that this took place in Cape Town.)
  22. Sol Plaatje European Union Poetry Anthology. Template:Webarchive
  23. "New universities' names revealed", News24, 25 July 2013.
  24. All in the name of science: campus buildings renamed; retrieved 16 August 2013.
  • ---Couzens, Tim. 1987. Sol T. Plaatje and the First South African Epic. English in Africa 14: 41-65.

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Okunye emakufundwe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

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