Nontetha Nkwenkwe

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Nontetha Nkwenkwe (c. 1875 - May 20, 1935)

Imbali ngobomi bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UNontetha Nkwenkwe ngomnye weenkokheli zokholo eziphawulekayo zamabhinqa ezazinxumelene neenkonzo eza zizimele ngoo-1920. Uzalwe eQonce ngo-1875. UNontetha wayetshatile enabantwana abalishumi. Umyeni wakhe owayengumsebenzi womfuduki wasweleka, wamshiya kwafuneka ezibele abantwana bakhe. Ukuvela kokuqhekeka kwesifo somkhuhlane ngo1918, uNontetha wayekholelwa ukuba usindiselwe injongo ethile. Ukuthabatha kwakhe umsebenzi wokubayimboni, umtyhili, nomprofeti kwabutshintsha ubomi bakhe ngendlela ephawulekayo.

Ekuqaleni uNontetha wamkelwa ngabasemagunyeni engafani nabanye oogxa bakhe abalandelayo kumaxa alandelayo abangamadoda nje ngoEnoch Mgijima. Enye into abasemagunyeni bamamkela kuba beqonda ukuba intshumayelo yakhe yayingokukhuthaza ebandleni ukuba liyeke utywala, ukudanisa kwa kunye nokwenza ezinye izinto ezidibene nezithethe nemveli. Ngoku yekwa ngabasemagunyeni umbutho kaNontetha wakhula ngokukhawuleza emaphandleni aseCiskei, eMonti [[1]] eMiddledrift [[2]], naseQonce [[3]].

Imisebenzi yakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Emveni kwenkcitho gazi yama-Afrika akwaSirayeli eBulhoek[[4]] ng0we-1921, iingqondo zabantu abaMhlophe ngazo zonke iindibano zabantu abamnyama zazikrokra. Amagosa banika ingxelo ethi abasebenzi basezifama zaseBhofolo [[5]] (kufuphi naseFort Hare [[6]]) "babebaseleke ngumyalezo wakhe kwaye bengafuni ukubuyela emsebenzini" (UEdgar. R, noSaphire. H, 1999). UNontetha wayekrokrelwa ukuba ukhuthaza umanyano phakathi kwabafundileyo nabangafundanga okanye 'ababomvu' baseMpuma Koloni [[7]]. Iingxabano phakathi kwalamaqela mabini ngelixeshazazingafikeleleki kwaye zineziphumo ezingazinzisiyo kummantla wonke. Abasemagunyeni bazamkela ezingxabano neengquzulwano kwaye isenokwenzeka ukuba zaziqalwe ngabo. UNontetha wayebonwa nje ngomphazamisi kulawulo lwezentlalo ngoko ke kunyanzelekile ukuba enciphiswe. Baye baqhubeka ngokumtyhola ngokukhuthaza ama-Afrika ukuba bayeke iinkonzo zabaMhlophe. Wayebonwa eguqukile ngoku kwaye wabanjwa ngo1922(UEdgar. R noSaphire. H, 1999).

Ukubanjwa kwakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukubanjwa kukaNontetha kwabacaphukisa abaxhasi bakhe. Ekuboniseni umanyano, amakhulu babaxhasi bakhe badibana, belungele ukuthetha nabasemagunyeni kwisiganeko sokubanjwa kweqhawekazi labo. Babesazi ngenxaki enokwenzeka ukuba angavela enkundleni yamatyala abasemagunyeni ngoko ke bamthumela esibhedlele sabagula ngengqonde eBhofolo [[8]] uNontetha kwaye ngo1924 bamtshintshela eWeskoppies asylum [[9]] ePitoli. Emva kweminyaka emibini ngo1926, kuthe cwaka ngokuba isiphuma sakhe sizakuthini abaxhasi bakhe bahamba 1600 mayile ukuyombona kodwababanjwa bagwetywa phantsi komthetho wedompass.

Ngonyaka we-1930 kwaye kwathathwa iqela lesibini labathunywa lakhwelisa kuloliwe labuyiselwa emva, eMpuma Koloni. Uqhankqalazo lwabamnyama kunye nabaphathi abamhlophe lwalungahoywanga, wachitha ubomi bakhe pha, ngonyaka we-1935 wasweleka elilolo.

UNontetho uyidlalile indima ebalulekileyo eMpuma Koloni ngexesha lonyaka we-1920 lonto yenza umnqa ukuba ibe kanti kuncinci okwaziwayo kwaye nokubhaliweyo ngaye. Kodwa ke phakathi kwabantu awayekhula nabo ngela xesha, wayengoyena owayehlonitshwe kakhulu. Wayenomtsalane kakhulu kumabhinqa asengingqini (ingakumbi abathandazeli) kwaye bakhawuleza bankqenkqeza kwicawa I”Church of the Prophetess Nontetha” [[10]] esekho nakulemihla. Le cawa ivumela amabhinqa athethe ngokukhululekileyo ngeengxoxo zesini kunye nezigqithiselayo, ngelixa indima yakhe yobuprofeti yayimenza abengumntu ohloniphekileyo. Ngexesha lonyaka we-1920, uNontetha wayesele efumene intlonipho kwingingqi yabantu abamnyama kwaye engahlonitshwanga ngokuba ngumprofeti okanye inyanga kodwa ekwahlonitshwa ngokuba libhinqa elindilisekileyo elinesidima kwaye eliyintloko yekhaya.

Ukuphazamiseka engqondweni[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Oku kuthandwa nokuhlonitshwa ngamaAfrika kummandla kwakhabana nendlela ewayebonwa ngayo ngabo basemthethweni. Kwabo basemthethweni, uNontetha wayesisigulane sengqondo esingazinzanga nekwakudingeka ukuba sisuswe ekuhlaleni siyogcinwa eluvalelweni. Umnqa ngowokuba, usapho lukaNontetha kunye nabalandeli bakhe zange balamkele ibango lokuba wayephazamiseke ngengqondo. Nabachasi bakhe abangamaAfrika zange bamchaza njengomntu ongaphilanga ngengqondo koko babemchaza njengombhukuqi.

Uphando ngempilo yengqondo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukubanjwa kukaNontetha kuphembelele kuphando-nzulu oluchasanisa izimvo zaseAfrica [[11]] kunye nezo zaseYurophu[[12]] ngokuqondwa kwengulo yengqondo. Umahluko osisiseko kunyango lwempilo yengqondo phakathi kweYurophu neAfrika uveliswa yingxelo yebali ngobomi bukaNontetha. Uluntu lwamaAfrika lwalunqabile ekuthini lusike abo bakholelwa ukuba ngamageza emphakathini, endaweni yoko, babebamanya noluntu. Kwanyanzeleka ukuba bayile ‘iindlela zokumelana nolothuko olwaluziswa lutshintsho lophanyazo. Ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yamashumi amabini, ifuthe lokuba nemimoya emzantsi mpuma kweli leAfrrika, umzekelo, lwanceda ekoyiseni ukuxhalaba nokungazithembi okwakuviwa ngoomama ababejongene nokunyuka kocinezelo losapho kunye nocinezelo lomsebenzi njengokuba ukufuduka ngenxa yomsebenzi kwakusanda.Njenge ntshukumo kaNontetha, eli futhe lalisebenza njenge nqwelo yokuqhankqalaza, ifora yokuncedana, okanye njengesinye sezakhiwo zoomama.’(Edgar and Sapire, 1999).

References[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  • R. Edgar, H. Sapire. African Apocalypse: The Story of Nontetha Nkwenkwe, a Twentieth Century South African Prophet. Athens, Ohio and Johannesburg: Ohio University Press, 1999.
  • The Silenced Prophetess available at Comment [R1]: Rendani, Sithembele, Sibusiso and Yazini http://heritage.thetimes.co.za/memorials/EC/NontethaNkwenkwe/ [Accessed on 12 July 2011]
  • Nontetha Nkwenkwe, painted By Lizo Pemba Picture Courtesy Of The Church Of The Prophetess Nontetha