Johann Sebastian Bach

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UJohann Sebastian Bach, 1746
Utyikityo lukaBach
I-logo kaBach: ii-inishiyali zegama lakhe (JSB) ngesithsaba ngaphezulu.

UJohann Sebastian Bach (ngoMatshi 21, 1685-Julayi 28, 1750) wayengumqambi wase IJamani wexesha lamaBaroque. Uthathwa njengenye yeemvumi ezinkulu kwimbali yaseNtshona. UBach wayenempembelelo kubaqambi abanjengoWolfgang Amadeus Mozart, uBeethoven, noWagner, kwaye umculo wakhe uthathwa njengelona lihle kwixesha lakhe. Umculo kaBach waziwa ngobuhle bawo, ubucukubhede, ukuqaqamba kunye namandla. Ngenxa yempumelelo yakhe ebalaseleyo, uhlala ebizwa njengeyona mvumi ibalaseleyo kwimbali yaseNtshona. Umculo weBach uqhelisiwe, uyafundwa kwaye uyonwabele kwihlabathi liphela.[1]

Ibali lobomi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UBach wazalelwa e-Eisenach ngo-1685. Wafundiswa ukudlala ivayolini ngutata wakhe, uJohann Ambrosius, ixilongo lenkundla elalisebenza kwinkosana ye-Eisenach. UBach wayengekabi neminyaka elishumi ubudala ukusweleka kukayise, emshiya eyinkedama. Waya kuhlala kwikhaya lomntakwabo; umntakwabo wayehlala e-Ohrdruf. Ngenxa yelizwi lakhe eligqwesileyo, uBach wafumana umsebenzi kwikhaya leemonki laseMichaelis eLüneberg ngo-1700. Ilizwi lakhe latshintsha emva kwexesha elifutshane, kodwa waqhubeka njengemvumi. Emva kokuthatha umsebenzi okwexeshana eWeimar ngo-1703 njenge-violinist, uBach waba ngumbutho kwi-Neue Kirche e-Arnstadt (1703-1707). Ubudlelwane bakhe nebhunga lecawa babunzima njengoko imvumi eselula yayihlala ingaluhoyi uxanduva lwayo, ikhetha ukuziqhelanisa nelungu. Enye iakhawunti ichaza ikhefu leenyanga ezine elinikezwe uBach, ukuba aye eLubeck apho anokuziqhelanisa nomculo kaDietrich Buxtehude. Wabuyela eArnstadt kwakudala emva kokuba bekulindelwe, ecaphukisa ibhunga. Uye wakhonza ngokufutshane eSt.Blasius eMühlhausen njenge-organist, ukuqala ngoJuni 1707, watshata umzala wakhe, uMaria Barbara Bach, ekwindla. UBach wabhala iToccata yakhe edumileyo kunye neFugue kwi-D encinci (BWV 565) kunye nee-cantata zakhe zokuqala ngelixa wayeseMühlhausen. Emva koko wathatha umsebenzi kwi-Duke yase Sachsen-Weimar ngo-1708, esebenza njengonobumba wenkundla kwaye edlala kwi-okhestra, ekugqibeleni waba yinkokheli yayo ngo-1714. Wabhala iingoma ezininzi ngeli xesha, kuquka no-Orgel-Büchlein. UBach wayishiya iWeimar wafumana umsebenzi ngoDisemba 1717 njengoKapellmeister eCöthen. Ngo-1720, umfazi kaBach wasweleka ngesiquphe, wamshiya nabantwana abane (abanye abathathu basweleka besebusana). Kungekudala emva koko, wadibana nomfazi wakhe wesibini, u-Anna Magdalena Wilcke, owatshata naye ngoDisemba 1721. Wayeza kuzala abantwana abali-13, nangona bebahlanu kuphela abaya kuphila ebuntwaneni. IBrandenburg Concertos (BWV 1046-51) ezintandathu, phakathi kweminye imisebenzi emininzi, isusela kwiminyaka yakhe yaseCöthen. UBach waba nguKantor weSikolo sikaThomas eLeipzig ngoMeyi ngo-1723 kwaye wawugcina lo msebenzi de wasweleka. KwakuseLeipzig apho waqamba uninzi lwee-cantata zakhe. UBach ekugqibeleni akonelisekanga ngulo msebenzi, hayi ngenxa yomvuzo ophantsi kuphela, kodwa nangenxa yemisebenzi enzima kunye nezixhobo ezimbi. Ke ngoko, wamkela eminye imisebenzi, kubandakanya nokuyalela i-Collegium Musicum yesixeko, iqela leemvumi eziqeqeshiweyo kunye nabadlali ababesenza ikonsathi zeveki nganye, ngo-1729. Waphinda waba ngumlawuli womculo kwiNkundla yaseDresden ngo-1736, kwinkonzo kaFrederick Augustus II. Nangona wayenemisebenzi embalwa, wanikwa inkululeko yokwenza into ayifunayo. U-Bach waqala ukuhamba waya eBerlin nge-1740s, hayi kancinci kuba unyana wakhe, uCarl Philipp Emanuel, wayesebenza njengemvumi apho. Ugula ngesifo seswekile, uBach wasweleka ngoJulayi 28, 1750.[2][3][4][5]

Izalathiso[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. https://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-6002278195
  2. https://www.biographyonline.net/music/j-s-bach.html
  3. http://www.baroquemusic.org/biojsbach.html
  4. "Classical Net - Basic Repertoire List - J.S. Bach" Classical Net retrieved 2021-10-15 
  5. "Bach Cantatas Website - Home Page" Bach Cantatas Website retrieved 2021-10-15