IJamani

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IJamani
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Flag of Germany.svg Coat of arms of Germany.svg
EU location GER.png
Ikomkhulu: I-Berlin
Ulwimi lwaseburhulumenteni: IsiJamani
Isiphaluka: 357 168 km²
Uluntu: 79 800 000 (2015)

IJamani lelinye lamazwe aseYurophu.

i-Jamani (Listeni/ˈdʒɜrməni/; i-Jamani: umhlaba wamaDatshi), ngokwasesikweni lilizwe leengqokolela zamaphondo eRiphabhlikhi azilawula phantsi kwekomkhulu iJamani (IsiJamani: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, libizwa ngolu hlobo ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant (listen)),[15] yipalamente yeriphabhlikhi ezimeleyo kumbindi-ntshona waseYurophu. eli "lizwe" linamazwana ali-16 ize ikomkhulu lalo nesona sixeko sikhulu ibe yi-Berlin. I-Jamani ithathe umhlaba ongangama-357,021 eekhilomitha (137,847 sq mi) kwaye imozulu itshintsha qho. Linabahlali abazizigidi ezingama-80.6, nto leyo yenza okokuba libe lelona lizwe laziwayo kwiManyano yaseYurophu. I-Jamani yongamele ngamandla kwezoqoqosho nakwezopolitiko lwelizwekazi laseYurophu kwaye yinkokheli kwezembali kumasiko amanizni, ulwazi, nakwimiba yobuchwepheshe.

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Intlanga-ngeentlanga zamaJamani zizinze kwindawo kungoku nje ebizwa ngokuba yiJamani esemaNtla kunye nomzantsi Scandinavia ukususela kwiminyaka yakudala-dala. Ingingqi ekuthiwa yi-Jamaniya yaashicilelwa ngamaRoma phambi ko-AD 100. Ngexesha lokuFuduka elathi langqamana ukuphela kobuKumkani bamaRomanokuphela kobuKumkani bamaRoma]], iintlanga zamaJamani zathi zanda ngakumazantsi de azifumanela izikumkani kwiindawo ezininzi eYurophu. Ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane ye-10, iingingqi zaseJamani zenza iziko lobukumkani bamaRoma aNgcwele. [16] Ngenkulungwane ye-16, iingqi zasentshona Jamani zaba l[[iziko labaqhankqalazela ukwakhiwa ngokutsha kobuKristu. Uzinzo kwiminyaka yeeMfazwe zikaNapoleon, ukuvela kwe-''Pan-Germanism'' ngaphakathi kuManyano lwamaJamani kwaba ngunozala womanyano lwamazwe amaninzi aseJamani kubuKumkani bamaJamani ngo-1871, phantsi kolawulo lwase-Prussia.

iJamani eEU

Emva koVukelo-mBuso lwaseJamani ngo-1918–1919 nangokunikezela komkhosi okwakulandelelana kwiMfazwe yoku-1 yeHlabathi, ubuKumkani basuswa kwafakwa ipalamente yeriphabhlikhi kaWeimer ngo-1918 yaza yalahlekelwa yinxalenye yeengingqi zayo kwisivumelwano soxolelwaniso saseVersailles. Nangona ngeli xesha yayitshila phambili kwimibandela yophando nakweyamasiko, iJamani yathi yathwaxwa kanobom kukugungqa kwezoqoqosho nakwezopolitiko kwathi kona ngexesha lembandezelo eNkulu kwanga kuthelwe ityuwa enxebeni. Ukufumaneka kwesiZwe sesiThathu okanye koburhulumente baseNazi]] ngo-1933 ekugqibeleni kwakhokelela kwiMfazwe yesi-2 yeHlabathi nakwi''Holocaust''. emva ko-1945, iJamani yahlulwa-hlulwa yaza yahlalwa zizizwe zeMvisiswano kumazwe amabini, Kwimpuma-Jamani nakwiNtshona-Jamani. Ngo-1990, ilizwe laphinda lamanyana.

iJamani

I-Jamani ililizwe lesi-ne ngoqoqosho oluphezulu ngokwe-nominal GDP kwihlabathi lonke liphela ize iphinde ibelilizwe lesihlanu elinamandla okuthenga athe chatha. Njengentshali yehlabathi kwiinkampani zemveliso nezeteknoloji]] lilizwe lesibini ubukhulu ekuthumeleni iimpahla kwamanye amazwe iphinde ibe lelesithathu ubukhulu ilizwe elirhweba impahla kwamanye amazwe lize nayo ekhaya. Lilizwe eliphuhlileyo kunjalo umgangatho wentlalo yakhona uxhomile, uneempawu zokhuseleko lwentalo oluluqilima olubandakanya inkqubo ejongene nezempilo nekuyinkqubo yakudala yehlabathi lonke jikelele. Laziwa ngokutyeba kwezamasiko nakwezembali yezopolitiko, iJamani ibisakuba likhaya leengcali ezinefuthe, abadidiyeli beengoma, abaphandi, kunye nabayili. I-Jamani yayililungu labaphandi ekuhlaleni kwaseYurophu ngo-1957, apho yaba yi-EU ngo-1993. Ikwayinxalenye yengingqi [iSchengen|yaseSchengen]], kwaye ibe ililungu le-eurozone ukususela ngo-1999. I-Jamani ingamandla amakhulu, ikwalilungu leziZwe eziManyeneyo, le-NATO, le-G8, le-G20, e-OECD kunye nososiba waseYurophu.

Imfundo ngemvelaphi yamagama nokutshintsha-tshintsha kwentsingiselo ywo ngokuhamba kweminyaka[tshintsha | edit source]

Igama elibhalwe ngesiNgesi elithi Germany lisuka kwigama lesiLatini elithi Germania, gama elo elaqala ukusetyenziswa emva kokuba uJulius Ceasar wathi waliphakamisela abantu basempuma yeRhine.[17] Eyona icacileyo, yoyokokuba ngu-Gauls owaqalayo ukubiza abantu ukuba bawele impuma yeRhine Germani (neyathi yasetyenziswa ngamaRoma) njengoko uhlanga lwemveli lwamaJamani lwalungazibizi ngamaGermanus okanye amaGermani. Ngoko ke eli gama lasetyenziswa kuphela kumhlaba wamaRoma kwaye lanika intsingiselo ethe chatha kubantu ababeyixhasa impuma yeRhine kunye/okanye umntla weDanube. [18] Igama lesiJamani elithi Deutschland (ngokwemveli diutisciu land, "umhlaba wamaDatshi") lisuka kwisiDatshi, isizukulwana esisuka kuluntu lwamaDatshi akudala olwaziwayo(i.e. bengamaDiot okanye "amaDiota"), lisetyenziselwa ukwahlula ulwimi lwabantu nje kwisilatini nakwisizukulwana samaRoma. Kwakhona kusukwa kuluntu lwama-Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz (jonga nakwindlela yesiLatini i-Theodiscus), isuka kuhlanga lwamaYurophu olungama-Proto-Indo, abantetho isisiProto-Indo-European- [19]

Imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

Elona phepha: Imbali yaseJamani

Iintlanga zaseJamani nezasebukumkanini bamaFranki[tshintsha | edit source]

Awona maphepha: Ixesha lokufuduka kwamaJamaniya Kwinkulungwane yesibini - kweyesihlanu kufudukwa eYurophu

I-Jamani yathi yabaluleka yaziwa ngokokuba bubuKukumkani babaRoma aNgcwele kwisiZwe samaJamani, yaba ke 'isisizwe' sokuqala, igama elithi 'isizwe' sihlandlo lithetha 'ubuKumkani'. Laqalwa ngumfo ka-Charlemagne nowaba yiKumkani yokuqala yamaRoma aNgcwele kwiminyaka engama-800 yandulukayo iNkosi (800 AD), lagcinwa ke de kwayiminyaka engama-1806, elo ke lixesha leeMfazwe zikaNapoliyoni. [12]

UbuKumkani besibini baqala ngesivumelwano soxolo esasingo-1871 e-Versailles.[13] elona lizwe likhulu kubuKumkani bamaJamani obutsha kwaba yi-Prussia. IiKumkani zasePrussia nazo zazikwaz"iziKumkani zamaJamani", kodwa ke zona zazingazibizi ngee"Kumkani zas"eJamani". Babubuninzi obunye ubukumkani, obamaDyoki, nobamaRhiphabhliki, bungekho se-Austria. IJamani yabubamba ubukumkani kwade kwayiminyaka engaphaya kwama-50.

Isivumelwano somanyano senziwa emva kokuba iJamani iphumelele kwiMfazwe eyayiphakathi kwe-Fransi ne-Prussia ngo-1871. KwiMfazwe yokuQala kwiHlabathi, iJamani yajoyina i-Austriya-ne-Hungari, nazo zathi makuliwe ne-France.[13] Imfazwe yayihamba okonyawo lonwabu ngakwicala lasentshona kunjalo nje uqhutywa ngokwembiwa kwemisele ukuze oyele khona amaqela ekwakusiliwa nawo, amajoni ayezikhusela ngokumba imingxuma apha emhlabeni. Abamaninzi amadoda awawayo macala omabini. Empuma amajoni ayesilwa amadabi awo namaRussia aza amaJamani aluphumelela elo dabi lwasemntla emva kokuba amaRussia enikezele. Imfazwe yaphela ngo-918 kuba iJamani yayingenakuyiphumelela imfazwe entshona ngoko ke yayingafuni ukusoloko ithumela amajoni ayo ukuba aye kufa, baza ke ubuKumkani baseJamani banikezela ngamandla abo. [13] IJamani yabanemiqathango eqatha ngakumbi, yaza ke ngoko iFransi yayithabathela kuyo i-Alsace iyixutha kwi-Jamani. Emva koqhankqalazo novukelo, ubuKumkani besibini baphela kwabe sele kuqalisa iRhiphabhlikhi yorhulumente wesininzi yase-Weimar.

Emva kweMfazwe, zabaninzi iingxaki zemali eJamani ngenxa yesivumelwano soxolelwaniso lwase-Versailles (xolelwaniso olo olwenza okokuba iJamani ihlawule iindleko zeMfazwe yokuQala kwiHlabathi) kunye nesoxinzelelo olukhulu lweHlabathi. [14]

Obesithathu ubuKumkani yaba bobombutho waseJamani iNazi; owathatha iminyaka eli-12, ukusukela ngomyaka ka-1933 ukuya kumnyaka ka-1945.[15] Baqala emva kokuba uHitler wathi wabekwa njengentloko kaRhulumente. Ngomhla wama-23 kuMatshi ngo-1933, ipalamente (eyayibizwa ngokuba yi-Reichstag) yamisa umthetho ekwakusithiwa yi-Enabling Act, yile mithetho eyenza okokuba urhulumente kaHitler enze imithetho yayo ngokwayo ngaphandle kkokonganyelwa yi-Reichstag. Oku kwamenza okokuba abenegunya lolawulo lolupheleleyo lwalo rhulumente. [16]singatsho ngokupheleleyo okokuba uHitler wabanguzwilakhe kulawulo lwakhe.

UHitler wafuna ukuwamanya onke amazwe aseJamani abesisizwe esinye, wakwenza oku kuzo zonke iindawo ezihlala amaJamani, ezifana ne-Austria kunye ne-Czechoslovakia, enye yeendawo zeRhipublikhi zase Jamani; kwakhona nanko uUHitler efuna umhlaba wasePoland Poland, umhlaba owawukhe waphantsi kolawulo lwaseJamani phambi ko-1918. Yala i-Poland ukuwuuyisela kuye umhlaba. Ukuhlaselwa kwePoland kwaqala kwimfazwe yesBini eyaba ngomhla woku-1 kweyoMsintsi ngowe-1939. Ukuqala kweMfazwe, Yayibonakalisa impumelelo iJamani. Yakwazi ukuthabathela kuyo uninzi lomhlaba osemantla nasentshona Yurophu. Kodwa ke, iJaamani yathi yahlasela ibhunga elimanyeneyo laseSoviet ngo-1941 kwaza, emva kwedabi laseKursk, iwela ekumntla Jamani laqala lachul'ukunyathela de kwaba iya esiphelweni imfazwe. Ngomhla we-8 kuCanzibe ngo-1945,iJamani yanikezela emva kokuba iBerlin yathi yafunyanwa, kwiveki engambi koko uHitler wazibulala. ngenxa yeMfazwe, iJamani yaphulukana noninzi lomhlaba wayo osempuma kumgca omdala oseNeiße, waza wathi kwiminyaka engama-45, iJamani yahlukana kubini kwabakho iJamani eseNtshona neJamani eseMpuma.

Ngo-1999 kwabakho inkqubo yokwenziwa ngokutsha kumntla Jamani, neyathi yakhokhelela ekubeni kuvulwe indawo eyayibizwa ngokuba luDonga lwaseBerlin nasekupheleni komthetho wentlalo eJamani. Ezi ziganeko zaziwa ngokokuba lutshintsho olukhawulezileyo lwe Wende okanye iFriedliche (utshintsho olungoxolo)eJamani. Emva koko, umNtla-Jamani waamanyana neNtshona Jamani ngo-[17] Ijamani entsha yinxalenye yombutho waseYurophu. [18]