inyongo okanye igall yinto ekrakrayo, ingamanzi le nto, imbala uluhlaza de ubuhlaza bayo bubengathi bubamnyama iye isiba buqanda bumdaka, le nto iputyuzwa sisibindi senkoliso [[izilwanyana|yezilwanyana ezinethambo lomqolo, inceda ekusilweni kwamafuma omzimba emathunjini amancinane. Ebantwini, inyongo ihlala iputyuzwa sisibindi (isibindi senyongo), igcinwe yaza yafunjwa kwisingxobo senyongo (isingxobo senyongo), size sithi ke xa sisitya isilwanyana eso, yona ibe iputyuzeka kwithumbu laso elikhulu ekuthiwa yiduodenum. Inyongo le yenziwe ngamanzi angama-97%, 0.7% iityuwa zenyongo, 0.2% yebilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids and lecithin), and 200 meq/l inorganic salts.
umsebenzi wenyongo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
Inyongo inamaxesha okusebenza njengesurfactant, oko kukuthi inceda ekunyibilikiseni amafutha ekutyeni. Ityuwa yenyongo iianions zihydrophilic kwelinye icala ziphinde zibehydrophobic kwelinye; iziphumo zoko, zidla ngokuqokolelana ngakumaqabaza amafutha ekuthiwa zii(triglycerides nangakwiiphospholipids) ukuze zenze iimicelles, with the hydrophobic sides towards the fat and hydrophilic sides facing outwards. The hydrophilic sides are negatively charged, and this charge prevents fat droplets coated with bile from re-aggregating into larger fat particles. Ordinarily, the micelles in the duodenum have a diameter around 14–33 μm. Yebo
The dispersion of food fat into micelles thus provides a greatly increased surface area for the action of the enzyme pancreatic lipase, which actually digests the triglycerides, and is able to reach the fatty core through gaps between the bile salts. A triglyceride is broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride, which are absorbed by the villi on the intestine walls. After being transferred across the intestinal membrane, the fatty acids reform into triglycerides, before being absorbed into the lymphatic system through lacteals. Without bile salts, most of the lipids in food would be excreted in feces, undigested.
Bile is alkalineTemplate:Citation needed and also has the function of neutralizing any excess stomach acid before it enters the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. Bile salts also act as bactericides, destroying many of the microbes that may be present in the food.
Causes of Biliary Obstruction[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
Biliary obstruction can be caused by a variety of dietary factors. Majority of the time biliary obstruction is caused by the high consumption of sugar, fat and processed foods. These above mentioned foods can cause gallstones. Primarily biliary obstruction is caused by blockage in the bile ducts. Bile ducts carry bile from the liver and gallbladder through the pancreas. A huge amount of the bile is then released into the small intestine duodenum. The remaining bile is stored in the gallbladder. After food consumption the bile in the gallbladder is released to help with digestion and fat absorption.
Clinical significance[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
- In the absence of bile, fats become indigestible and are instead excreted in feces, a condition called steatorrhea. Feces lack their characteristic brown color and instead are white or gray, and greasy. Steatorrhea can lead to deficiencies in essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. In addition, past the small intestine (which is normally responsible for absorbing fat from food) the gastrointestinal tract and gut flora are not adapted to processing fats, leading to problems in the large intestine.
- The cholesterol contained in bile will occasionally accrete into lumps in the gallbladder, forming gallstones. Cholesterol gallstones are generally treated through surgical removal of the gallbladder. However, they can sometimes be dissolved by increasing the concentration of certain naturally occurring bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid.
- On an empty stomach – after repeated vomiting, for example – a person's vomit may be green or dark yellow, and very bitter. The bitter and greenish component may be bile or normal digestive juices originating in the stomach.Template:Citation needed The color of bile is often likened to "fresh-cut grass",Template:Citation needed unlike components in the stomach that look greenish yellow or dark yellow. Bile may be forced into the stomach secondary to a weakened valve (pylorus), the presence of certain drugs including alcohol, or powerful muscular contractions and duodenal spasms.
Intlalo nesiko[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
In medical theories prevalent in the West from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, the body's health depended on the equilibrium of four "humors", or vital fluids, two of which related to bile: blood, phlegm, "yellow bile" (choler), and "black bile". These "humors" are believed to have its roots in the appearance of a blood sedimentation test made in open air, which exhibits a dark clot at the bottom ("black bile"), a layer of unclotted erythrocytes ("blood"), a layer of white blood cells ("phlegm") and a layer of clear yellow serum ("yellow bile"). Excesses of black bile and yellow bile were thought to produce depression and aggression, respectively, and the Greek names for them gave rise to the English words cholera (from Greek kholé) and melancholiaTemplate:Citation needed.
Those same theories explain the derivation of the English word bilious from bile, the meaning of gall in English as "exasperation" or "impudence", and the Latin word cholera, derived from the Greek kholé, which was passed upon several Romance languages in words meaning "anger" such as colère (French) and cólera (Spanish).
Isepha yenyongo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
Bile from deceased mammals can be mixed with soap. This mixture, called bile soap, can be applied to textiles a few hours before washing and is a traditional and rather effective method for removing various kinds of tough stains.
Inyongo ekutyeni[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
A dish in the Philippines called "Pinapaitan" uses bile as a sort of flavoring for this dish.
Principal bile acids[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]
- Barrett, Kim E. (2012) Ganong's review of medical physiology. (24th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill Medical p. 512 ISBN 978-0-07-178003-2
- Guyton and Hall (2011) Textbook of Medical Physiology U.S.: Saunders Elsevier p. 784 ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8
- Barabote RD, Tamang DG, Abeywardena SN, et al. (2006) "Extra domains in secondary transport carriers and channel proteins" Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758 (10): 1557–79 PMID 16905115 doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.06.018
- Newton, W. (1837) "The invention of certain improvements in the manufacture of soap, which will be particularly applicable to the felting of woollen cloths." The London Journal Of Arts And Sciences; And Repertory Of Patent Inventions IX: 289 retrieved 2007-02-08