Iimpawu zokudibanisa nokuthabatha

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Iimpawu zokudibanisa (+) kunye no kuthabatha() ziimpawu zakwamathematika ezisetyenziselwa ukubonisa ukuba-positive nokuba-negative kwakunye nokwenzekayo xa kudityaniswa naxa kuthatyathwa. Umsebenzi wazo ezimpawu wandiselwe nakwezinye iintsingiselo ezininzi, ezifanayo nezibufana. Uphawu lokukudibanisa ngesiNgesi kuthiwa ngu-Plus kanti lona olokuthabatha kuthiwa ngu-minus. U-Plus no-Minus ke ngamagama antsingiselo yawo iyeyesi-Latin athetha "ukongeza" "kuphungula" ngokulandelelana kwawo. 

Imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

Nangona ezi mpawu zibonakala ngokungathi ngoonobumba okanye amanani amaArabhu aseHindu, azi mpawu zakudala-dala. Uphawu lokudibanisa noluyindlela ethile ekubhalwa ngayo ekuthiwa yi-Egyptian hieroglyphic, umzekelo, efana nemilenze emibini ehamba ngomkhondo walapho kwakubhalwe khona lo mbhalo  (ngokwesi-Egyptian ungabhalwa macalana omabini ukusuka ngasekunene  ukuya ngasekhohlo okanye ukusuka ngasekhohlo ukuya ngasekunene), kodwa xa uphawu lubuyela ngasemva lubonisa okokuba luphawu lokuthabatha

[1]

[2]

D54 okanye D55

Iphepha likaNicole Oresmeukusuka kwiminyaka wenkulungwane ye-14 libonisa omnye wemisebenzi yokuqala ebalulekileyo yephawu i-plus "+" .[3]

Ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yeminyaka ye-15 oonobumba u-"P" no "M" babesetyenziswa ngumntu wonke.[4] Iimpawu u-(P onomgca u omele u-più, oko kuthetha ukudibanisa plus, kunye no-M onomgca u- omele u-meno, oko kuthetha ukuthabatha minus) zavela okokuqala kulwazi-lwe-mathematika ye-Luca Pacioli, iSumma de arithmetica, i-geometria, i-proportioni i-et proportionalità, nombhalo wayo owakhutshwa wapapashwa okokuqala e-Venice ngo-1494.[5] The + is a simplification of the Latin "et" (comparable to the ampersand &).[6] The may be derived from a tilde written over m when used to indicate subtraction; or it may come from a shorthand version of the letter m itself.[7] In his 1489 treatise Johannes Widmann referred to the symbols − and + as minus and mer (Modern German mehr; "more"): "was − ist, das ist minus, und das + ist das mer".[8]

Incwadi epapashwe nguHenricus Grammateus ngo-1518 yazithatha ezi mpawu yazisebenzisela olunye uhlobo lomsebenzi wokuqala wokudibanisa + nokuthabatha − .[9]

Robert Recorde, the designer of the equals sign, introduced plus and minus to Britain in 1557 in The Whetstone of Witte:[10] "There be other 2 signes in often use of which the first is made thus + and betokeneth more: the other is thus made – and betokeneth lesse."




References[tshintsha | edit source]

  1. Karpinski, Louis C. (1917) "Algebraical Developments Among the Egyptians and Babylonians" The American Mathematical Monthly 24 (6): 257–265 MR 1518824 doi:10.2307/2973180 
  2. Karpinski, Louis C. (1917) "Algebraical Developments Among the Egyptians and Babylonians" The American Mathematical Monthly 24 (6): 257–265 MR 1518824 doi:10.2307/2973180 
  3. The birth of symbols – Zdena Lustigova, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University, Prague
  4. Stallings, Lynn (May 2000) "A brief history of algebraic notation" School Science and Mathematics retrieved 13 April 2009 
  5. Sangster, Alan; Stoner, Greg; McCarthy, Patricia (2008) "The market for Luca Pacioli’s Summa Arithmetica" Accounting Historians Journal 35 (1): 111–134 [p. 115] 
  6. Cajori, Florian (1928) "Origin and meanings of the signs + and -" A History of Mathematical Notations, Vol. 1 The Open Court Company, Publishers 
  7. Wright, D. Franklin; New, Bill D. (2000) Intermediate Algebra (4th ed.) Thomson Learning p. 1 "The minus sign or bar, — , is thought to be derived from the habit of early scribes of using a bar to represent the letter m" 
  8. Template:OED
  9. Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols
  10. Template:Citation.