Ifonetiki

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Ifonetiki (upelo /ifonetiki/, livela kwisiGrike: isandi, ilizwi) lisebe lofundo ngeelwimi eliquka ufundo ngezandi zentetho, okanye malunga nolwimi lokuthetha ngezandla isithetha- ntonye zizijekulo. Ibandakanya iimpawu zomzimba nezandi zentetho okanye iimpawu: ukuphinyiselwa kwazo, ukuvakala kwazo, ukuviwa ngeendlebe, nobume bazo ngokoluvo. Ifonoloji kwelinye icala, iqwalasela  izinto ezingabonakaliyo, ukuhlengahlengiswa konxulumano lwegrama lwezandi neempawu.

Isifundo sefonetiki sisifundo esiyimimango ngemimango esigxile kwintetho. Malunga neelwimi ezithethwayo zintathu iindlela zokufunda ezingundoqo:

  • Iifonetiki zophimiselo: ufundo ngokuphinyiselwa kwezandi zentetho ngesangozwi lokuphimisela ngumphimiseli.
  • Iifonetiki zezandi: ufundo zokuthunyelaw kwezandi zentetho kumphimiseli ukuya kumphulaphuli.
  • Iifonetiki zophulaphulo: ufundo lokwamkelwa nokuqondwa kwezandi zentetho ngumphulaphuli.

Yonke le miba inxulunyaniswa luthungelwano lwesandi, njengelizwi, ubude noyondelelwano.

Imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

Ifonetiki yafundwa ukusukela kwiinkulungwane yesithathu phambi kokuzalwa kukaKrestu(BC) kwilizwana lase-India, ngoshicilelo lukaPanini lwendawo nendlela yokuphinyiselwa kwamaqabane kwiSanskrit. Ialfabhethi ezinkulu eIndic namhlanje zihlela amaqabane azo ngokohlelo lukaPanini.

Ifonetiki yanamhla iqala ngemizamo efana naleyo kaJoshua Steele (eProsodia Rationalis, 1779) noAlexander Melville Bell (in Visible Speech, 1867)—ukwazis iindlela zokupelwa kwzandi zentetho.[1][2]

Ufundo lwefonetiki lukhule ngokukhawuleza ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-19 ngenxa yokuveliswa komashini oshicilela izandi owawuvumela ukushicelela uphawu lwentetho. Oosofonetitiki babekwazi ukuphonda-phinda ukudlala izandi zentetho amatyeli ngamatyeli baze ke bafake izihluzi zentetho kuphawu olo. Ngokwenza njalo umntu wayenakho ukucubungula ngobunono ubume besandi kuphawu lwentetho.

Notes[tshintsha | edit source]