I-e-mail

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Uphawu lwe-at, luphawu olufuneka  kwidilesi ye-e-mail .

Iindaba okanye imiyalezo ehamba ngombane (okanye i-e-mail okanye i-email) yInkonzo eza nge-internet evumela abantu abanedilesi ye-e-mail (ii-akhawunti) ukuba bathumele okanye bafumane iileta ezihamba ngombane, Ezo ke zifana neeleta ezi ziposwayo, ngaphandle nje kokuba zona zifika ngokukhawuleza okukhulu kuneeleta ezihamba nge-snail mail xa zithunyelwa kwiindawo ezikude, kwaye sisoloko zithunyelwa simahla. 

Njengezinye iindlela eziqhelekileyo zokuxhumana ngembalelwano, abasebenzisa olu hlobo bangazibona sele befumana uthotho lwembalelwano abayifuni nganto.   Xa ke lusiza nge-mail, oku kuthiwa si-spam. Ezinye ii-program zenzelwe ukuba ze kuthi xa kuthunyelwa okanye kufunyanwa le mbalelwano zikwazi ukuzibona nokuzihluza ezi zipam zize ke ngoko zivaleleke zingakwazi kwaphela ukungena kwi-email yakho. 

Xa uthumela okanye ufumana i- email ngokwendlela eqhelekileyo, kufuneka ubene-device (izinto ezinje nge-computer, nge-fowuni, njalo njalo.) eyakuthi ixhunyaniswe kwi-Internet nakwi-program ye-email (nebizwa ngokulula nje kuthiwe yi-mailer). Ziliqela ke iindlela  ekhoyo zeedilesi ze-email. Eyona ixhaphake kakhulu ibizwa ngokuba yi-RFC 2822, ibonakala  ngolu hlobo user@domain.com. Ubukhulu becala imiyalezo ye-email ithunyelwa ngamagama abhaliweyo,  kanti ke ngamanye amaxesha ithunyelwa ngohlobo lwe-HTML.

Ngamanye amaxesha ezinye iinkampani ziyakuvumela okokuba uyithumele i-email yakho simahla  kwi-website ekumgama omde kakhulu, kananjalo ukwazi ukuyifumana i-email yakho  evela kwi-website ekude kakhulu simahla. i-Gmail, i-Hotmail ne-Yahoo! ziphakathi kwezinye ii-website ezenza olu hlobo lwe-"web mail". I-Webmail yona ayilulandeli ncam olu hlobo luboniswe ngezantsi apha, kuba  kaloku i-webpage yi- web application kwaye inakekela iinkcukacha ezininzi ngokwayo. Kwindlela eqhelekileyo kusetyenziswa i-mailer, njengoko kuqhelekile kwi-smartphones.

I-Microsoft izenzele eyayo i-"communication protocol" (okanye uthotho lwemithetho yayo) yokuthumela okanye yokufumana i-mail okanye imbalelwano, ezizwa ngokuba yi-"Exchange". I-exchange protocol isebenza ngokwahlukile geqe kwindlela yesiqhelo kwaye ke eyayo indlela ayichazwanga apha. 

Indlela eqhelekileyo[tshintsha | edit source]

A diagram showing how email moves from one person to another on the internet.

lo mzobo unika umzekelo wento eyenzekayo xa i-email isuka kumntu omnye iye komnye kusetyenziswa le ndlela iqhelekileyo. Kulo mzekelo, uAlice uthumela umyalezo nge-email kuBob.

  1. Okokuqala, u-Alice ubhala umyalezo oya kuBob kwi-program yakhe ye-email. Iprogram yakhe ye-e-mail iyavuma ukuba awubhale umyalezo wakhe aze awubeke ndawonye nolunye ulwazi, njengedilesi ye-email yakhe, idilesi yomntu ambhalelayo,   ixesha awuthumele ngalo umyalezo wakhe, njalo njalo. Iyakuthi ke xa sele igqibile i-program ye-e-mail kaAlice iwuthumele loo myalezo kwi-central computer ebizwa ngokuba yi-mail server (okanye i-Mail Transfer Agent) isebenzisa inxalenye yemithetho ebizwa ngokuba yi-Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
  2. I-mail server esetyenziswa nguAlice ukuthumela umyalezo wakhe  (smtp.a.org) ithatha umyalezo kaAlice ize ijonge okubhalwe kwidilesi ukuze ibone okokuba uthunyelwa phi na lo myalezo. Emva koko I-mail server iphume iye kwi-intanethi ngejongo zokuzama ukufumana i-mail server esetyenziswa ngu-Bob. Konke oku ikwenza ngokuthetha nne sever eyi-Domain Name System (DNS), egcina ingxelo malunga nendlela ezifumaneka ngayo iintlobo ngeentlobo zekhompyutha kwi-intanethi, kuquka nee-mail servers. 
  3. I-DNS server inika i-mail server ka-Alice  idilesi eyiyo esetyenziswa nguBob xa efumana i-email (mx.b.org).
  4. I-mail server ka-Alice ithumela umyalezo kwi-email server kaBob, ize yona iwufake kwi-mailbox kaBob.
  5. UBob uvula iprogram ye-e-mail yakhe aze a-othule (a-download-e) imiyalezo yakhe esebenzisa enye yee-set-hi ezimbini zemithetho okanye yemigaqo —nokuba yi-Post Office Protocol (POP) okanye i-Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). Imiyalezo iquka imiyalezo emitsha evela ku-Alice.

Ezinye iimpawu[tshintsha | edit source]

  • Ungazithumela i-files kunye nee-emails ngokusebenzisa uphawu lwe-Attachment. Le yindlela exhaphakileyo yokuthumela imiyalezo okanye iidocuments ezinde,  izi-spreadsheets, ii-photographs njalo njalo, nakwabanye abantu.
  • Umsebenzi we-CC (ikopi ye-Carbon) wenza ukuba uthumele ikopi ye-email kwabanye abantu.
  •   Umsebenzi we-BCC (i-Blind Carbon Copy) kananjalo wenza ukuba ukwazi ukuthumela ikopi ye-mail kwabanye abantu. Lo msebenzi ufihla amagama abantu abathunyelelweyo, ukuze emnye kubo angazi okokuba okokuba ngubani omnye othunyelelwe loo myalezo.  

Ezinye ii-websites[tshintsha | edit source]