I-Afrika

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Imephu yeHlabathi ebonisa okokuba iphi kanye i-Afrika le

I-AfriKa lilizwekazi iilizwekazi phakathi kwamanye amazwekazi asixhenxe emhlabeni. Ubukhulubalo limalunga nesiqingatha sesihlanu emhlabeni wonke uphela. lijikelelzwe ngeziphaluka ezinkulu zamanz'olwandle. Angama-54 amazwe waziwa ngokupheleleyo, nazimeleyo e-Afrika, kwaye abantu abaphila kweli lizwekazi bangali-14.7% (i-1.216 lezigidigidi) . Kucingwa ukuba le nto ingumntu yaqala ukuvela kweli lizwekazi laseAfrika. 

Imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

Intlalo phambi kokuba kufike ubukoloni baseYurophu.

Imbali yase-AfriKa yaaqala ukungena kwempucuko okokuqala kwisidalwa esingumntu yaaqhuba ke de kwayile meko imanyumnyezi sintympa-ntyumpeka kuyo kungoku nje ngelizwekazi eliyalingena nzulu kwezopolitiiko.

Ixesha elingembali ye-Afrika kudala-dala liquka ukuqandusela kwempucuko eJiphethe, ukwanda kwempucuko kwiindawo zasekuhlaleni ezingaphandle komlambo i- Nile River Valley kwanentsebenziswano eyayiphakathi wabo nempucuko eyayingaphandle kwemida yase-Afrika. Kwathi xa umnyaka wenkulungwane yesi-7 usiya ngasekupheleni, iNtshona, neMpuma ye-Afrika zonganyelwa lifuthe lobusilamsi elalisasazeke kuzo zombini ezi ziphaluka.    Loo nto yangunozala wemeko yokokuba kubonakale ngathi kukho amasiko amatsha athe gqi qhaphu, anje ngala siwabonayo namhlanje  angawa Sbantu besiSwahili. Oku kwabakwangunozala wokwanda kokuthengiswa kwamakhoboka, nokwaba nefuthe elibi ngokumangalisayo ekudodobaleni kwenkqubela kuphuhliso lweli lizwekazi liphela de kwangumnyaka wenkulungwane ye-19.

Ubukhoboka[tshintsha | edit source]

Ubukhoboka ngumkhuba obusoloko usenziwa e-Afrika. Phakathi kweminyaka yenkulungwane yesixhenxe namashumi amabini,  Ushishino ngamakhoboka olwalusenziwa ngama-Arabhu lwathatha izigidi ezili-18 zabantu e-Afrika, lwabenza  amakhoboka, ama-aRabhu ayebathatha ke aba bantu e-Afrika baqumle ngomzila ogqitha eSaharan uyekunqumla ngolwandle lwase-Indiya. .

Kwiminyaka yenkulungwane ephakathi kweshumi elinesihlanu neshumi elinethoba  (ama-500 yeminyaka), kushishino ngamakhoboka lwase-Atlantika kuqikelelwa okokuba kwaathathwa  abantu  ababemalunga  nezigidi ezisi-7–12 bayakwenziwa amakhoboka kwiHlabathi eliTsha.

Kwiminyaka yenkulungwane ephakathi kwe- 1808 ne-1860, Umkhosi waseBritane waanqakula iinqanawa zamakhoboka ezazimalunga ne-1,600 waza wemka nama-150,000 amaAfrika wayelapho.

Areas of Africa under the control or influence of European nations in 1914 (at outbreak of World War I).

Ubukoloni[tshintsha | edit source]

Kwathi xa umnyaka wenkulungwane yeshumi elithoba usiya ngasesipehlweni, umkhosi waseYurophu wahlala kumhlaba omnzinzi weli lizwekazi, nalo lonke ke elo xesha uguqula imimandla emininzi yeli lizwekazi uyifaka ingqondo yobukoloni. waza wakhuthaza okokuba ezinye iindawo zibe ziindawo ezixomekekileyo nezingazimelanga ngokokwazo. Washiya oorhulumente ababini kuphela, ababangoorhulumente abazimele geqe. Kwaba yiTopiya  (eyaziwa ngamaYurophu njenge"Abyssinia"), neLiberia.

IJiphethe neSudan wazizange zona zibekwe phantsi kobukumkani bobukoloni baseYurophu. Nangona kunjalo, emva kokuba iBritane ithe yayakuhlala kweli lizwekazi ngo-1882, iJiphethe yabaphantsi kolawulo lwaseBritane ngokupheleleyo de kwango-1922.

Imbali yangoku[tshintsha | edit source]

Iintshukumo zokuzimela geqe kweAfrika zaphumelela okokuqala ngo-1951, xa iLibya yaba lilizwe lokuqala ukukhululeka njengelizwe elaliphantsi kwengcinezelo yobukoloni, latsho laba lilizwe elizimeleyo.   Imbali emalunga ne-Afrika ibisoloko izele zizivunguvungu zovukelo mbuso neemfazwe, kwabe kwelinye icala kukhula impucuko kuqoqosho lwase-Afrika, kukhula noburhulumente bentando yesininzi kwiafrika yonke iphela. 

Imfazwe yobukhaya kwilizwe eliyi-Democratic Republic of the Congo (neyayisayakubizwa nge-Zaire) yaaqala ngo-1998. Abamelwane bamazwe ase-Afrika aazibandakanya nawo.   Okoko kwathi kwaqala olu ngquzulwano, zizigidi ezi-5,5 eziqikelelwa okokuba zafa ngenxa yalo.

Unxulumano ngezopolitiko olufana nomanyano lwe-afrika (i-African Union) yanika ithemba ngentsebenziswano noxolo olumandla phakathi kwamazwe amaninzi eli lizwekazi. 

Imozulu[tshintsha | edit source]

Izidalwa eziphilayo zase-Africa

Ukusukela emntla ukuya emzantsi, i-Afrika ineentlobo-ntlobo zemozulu. Zibekwe ngokulandelelana kwazo ukusuka emantla:    

  • Imozulu ye-Alpine neye-mediterranean 
  • Intlango eyomileyo nenentlabathi
  • I-Savanna ethande ukoma (umhlaba wengca)
  • Imvula yamahlathi
  • Umhlaba unexhaxhe ngemgca
  • Intlango eyome kakhulu
  • Intab'etafile

Ukusuka kumntla-mpuma ukuya kumzantsi kukho umhlaba omkhulu onomlambo oseMpuma ye-Afrika. lo mhlaba uneentaba, uneziganeko zodubulo-mhlaba, iindonga, ezinzulu, kunye nemihlaba eyondeleleneyo, imilambo neengxangxasi zamanzi. 

Singatsho nje ngokupheleleyo okokuba i-Afrika inemizekelo yeentlobo-ntlobo zemozulu. 

Ukuna kwemvula[tshintsha | edit source]

Igama lesithunzi semvula, kodwa ibe ikhatshwa lugquthe oluvela entshona.  
imifanekiso ebonakalisa okokuba luxhaphake phi na uhlaza ngenyanga yomDumba nangeyeThupha (phambi nasemva kwehlobo.  

Ubukhulu becala umntla Afrika wome kakhulu kwaye unobushushu obuphezulu.  Wonganyelwe yintlango yaseSahar kwaye awufumani mvula ingakanani. KwiSahara- -Africa imbalwa imilambo kwakunye neminye imithombo yamanzi.  Amanzi afunyanwa phantsi komhlaba afana namanzi omthombo abaluleke kakhulu entlango.  Le nto ke yenza ukuba kubekho indawo enohlaza (izityalo ezimila apho) eyintlango. Loo ndawo ke ibizwa ngokuba yi-oasis ngesilungu. 

Kwesa siphaluka sehlabathi umoya ovuthuzayo uvela empuma ubukhulu becala.  Oko ke kuzisa imvula, kodwa ke i-Himalayas kunye ne-Tibetan Plateau zivalela imvula  eyi-monsoon kwaye zithintela ukuba ingakwazi ukungena kwiNtshona yaseAfrika.  Kananjalo, iintaba ze-Atlas kufuphi nonxweme olusemantla e-Afrika zinqanda imvula ukuba ingangeni kumntla. Esi sesinye isithunzi semvula. 

Owona msebenzi wezi zithunzi zemvula zimbini kukujongana nentlango yaseSahara.  

Iimeko zobeme bezulu kunye neenkqwithelo ziya zisahluka ngokuya zihambela zisiya emzantsi, apho kukho uthotho ne-equator. I-equator ihamba inqumle umbindi we-afrika  (Jonga umgca obomvu okrwelwe kwimephu). Ok kuthetha okokuba ubukhulu becala be-Afrika buphakathi kweezi tropica zimbini:  

  • I-Tropic yeCancer
  • I-Tropic yeCapricorn

Izityalo nezilwanyana[tshintsha | edit source]

Le-oasis, okanye lo mfula useLibya, unezityalo ezininzi ezikhulayo neziwujikelezileyo.  

I-Africa inezilwanyana zasendle ezininzi. Zininzi iintlobo-ntlobo zezilwanyana apha. Kungoku nje likukuphela kwelizwekazi elineentlobo-ntlobo zezilwanyana ezinkulu.  Ezinye zazo zivela ziyintaphane, yamanani amakhulu.  Kukho ii-antelope, I-buffalo, imbabala, i-cheetah, imfene, indlovu, i-giraffe, i-rhinoceros, ii-apes, i-hyaena, nezinye nezinye. Zingaphaya kwamawaka ama-2 iintlobo zeentlanzi ezihlala kwii-lakes nakwimilambo yaseAfrika.

Ipolitiki[tshintsha | edit source]

Umbutho wezizwe ezimanyeneyo zaseAfrika The Umbutho womanyano lwelizwekazi i-Afrika (ngesiNgesi ushunqulwa ube ngu-AU) ngumbutho welizwekazi jikelele oyingqokolela yawo onke amazwe ase-Afrika, ngaphandle kweMorocco. Injongo yalo mbutho kukuphucula uqoqosho kwintlalo yaseAfrika,   amalungu olu manyano lwe-commonwealth, lube kuhulumente ophantsi kweenguquko ezifunyaniswe kwihlabathi. Umbutho wamazwe aseAfrika unepalamente yaseburhulumenteni, eyaziwa ngokuba nguRhulumente wamazwe Afrika emanyeneyo. ekukho kuye i-legislative, inkundla yomthetho, kunye nee-executive organs. Ikhokelwa ngumongameli nayinkokeli yesizwe, nokwanguMongameli we-Pan African Parliament. Umntu uba nguMongameli we-AU ngokonyulelwa kwi-PAP, aze abe ufumane inkxaso emandla kwi-PAP.

Ukuxhatshazwa kwamalungelo abantu kusenzeka nangoku kwiindawo eziliqela apha e-Afrika, ingakumbi kwiindawo eziphosanayo neliso likarhulumente. Obo bundlobongela obunjalo benzeka ngenxa yezopolitiko,  budla ngokuba ngunozala wengxaki yemfazwe yobukhaya. Amazwe athe axelwa kutsha nje njengawona mazwe atyeshela amalungelo abantu ngala alandelayo:  i-Uganda, i-Sierra Leone, i-Liberia, i-Sudan, i-Zimbabwe, kunye ne-Côte d'Ivoire.

Abantu[tshintsha | edit source]

Abantu abavela e-Afrika babizwa ngokuba ngama-Afrika. Abantu abavela entshona - Afrika we-Sahara babizwa ngokuba ngama-Maghrebis baze bona abavela emzantsi babizwe ngokuba ngama-Subsaharans. Iilwimi ezisemazantsi e-Afrika ziquka isiSwahili, isi-Oromo kunye nesi-Amharic. Iilwimi ezisetyenziswa emantla e-Afrika ziquka isiLingala, isi-Igbo kunye neziFulani. Elona lizwe linabantu abaninzi e-Afrika yiNigeria. 

Countries[tshintsha | edit source]

Country Area

(km²)

Population Year Density

(per km²)

Capital
Northern Africa
Template:Country data Algeria 2,381,740 34,178,188 2009 14 Algiers
Template:Country data Canary Islands (Spain) 7,492 2,118,519 2010 226 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Template:Country data Ceuta (Spain) 20 71,505 2001 3,575
Template:Country data Egypt 1,001,450 82,868,000 2012 83 Cairo
Template:Country data Libya 1,759,540 6,310,434 2009 4 Tripoli
Template:Country data Madeira (Portugal) 797 245,000 2001 307 Funchal
Template:Country data Melilla (Spain) 12 66,411 2001 5,534
Template:Country data Morocco 446,550 34,859,364 2009 78 Rabat
Template:Country data Sudan 1,861,484 30,894,000 2008 17 Khartoum
Template:Country data Tunisia 163,610 10,486,339 2009 64 Tunis
  Western Sahara 266,000 405,210 2009 2 El Aaiún
Horn of Africa
 
Template:Country data DjiboutiDjibouti
23,000 623,891 2012 22 Djibouti
Template:Country data EritreaEritrea 121,320 5,647,168 2009 47 Asmara
Template:Country data Ethiopia 1,127,127 84,320,987 2012 75 Addis Ababa
Template:Country data SomaliaSomalia 637,657 9,832,017 2009 15 Mogadishu
East Africa
Template:Country data BurundiBurundi 27,830 8,988,091 2009 323 Bujumbura
Template:Country data ComorosComoros 2,170 752,438 2009 347 Moroni
Template:Country data KenyaKenya 582,650 39,002,772 2009 66 Nairobi
Template:Country data MadagascarMadagascar 587,040 20,653,556 2009 35 Antananarivo
Template:Country data MalawiMalawi 118,480 14,268,711 2009 120 Lilongwe
Template:Country data MauritiusMauritius 2,040 1,284,264 2009 630 Port Louis
Template:Country data MayotteMayotte (France) 374 223,765 2009 490 Mamoudzou
Template:Country data MozambiqueMozambique 801,590 21,669,278 2009 27 Maputo
Template:Country data RéunionRéunion (France) 2,512 743,981 2002 296 Saint-Denis
Template:Country data RwandaRwanda 26,338 10,473,282 2009 398 Kigali
Template:Country data SeychellesSeychelles 455 87,476 2009 192 Victoria
Template:Country data South SudanSouth Sudan 619,745 8,260,490 2008 13 Juba
Template:Country data TanzaniaTanzania 945,087 44,929,002 2009 43 Dodoma
Template:Country data UgandaUganda 236,040 32,369,558 2009 137 Kampala
Template:Country data ZambiaZambia 752,614 11,862,740 2009 16 Lusaka
Template:Country data ZimbabweZimbabwe 390,580 11,392,629 2009 29 Harare
Central Africa
Template:Country data AngolaAngola 1,246,700 12,799,293 2009 10 Luanda
Template:Country data CameroonCameroon 475,440 18,879,301 2009 40 Yaoundé
Template:Country data Central African RepublicCentral African Republic 622,984 4,511,488 2009 7 Bangui
Template:Country data ChadChad 1,284,000 10,329,208 2009 8 N'Djamena
Template:Country data Republic of the CongoRepublic of the Congo 342,000 4,012,809 2009 12 Brazzaville
Template:Country data Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the Congo 2,345,410 69,575,000 2012 30 Kinshasa
Template:Country data Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea 28,051 633,441 2009 23 Malabo
Template:Country data GabonGabon 267,667 1,514,993 2009 6 Libreville
Template:Country data São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe 1,001 212,679 2009 212 São Tomé
Southern Africa
Template:Country data BotswanaBotswana 600,370 1,990,876 2009 3 Gaborone
Template:Country data LesothoLesotho 30,355 2,130,819 2009 70 Maseru
Template:Country data NamibiaNamibia 825,418 2,108,665 2009 3 Windhoek
Template:Country data South AfricaSouth Africa 1,219,912 51,770,560 2011 42 Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria
Template:Country data SwazilandSwaziland 17,363 1,123,913 2009 65 Mbabane
West Africa
Template:Country data BeninBenin 112,620 8,791,832 2009 78 Porto-Novo
Template:Country data Burkina FasoBurkina Faso 274,200 15,746,232 2009 57 Ouagadougou
Template:Country data Cape VerdeCape Verde 4,033 429,474 2009 107 Praia
Template:Country data Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire 322,460 20,617,068 2009 64 Abidjan, Yamoussoukro
Template:Country data GambiaGambia 11,300 1,782,893 2009 158 Banjul
Template:Country data GhanaGhana 239,460 23,832,495 2009 100 Accra
Template:Country data GuineaGuinea 245,857 10,057,975 2009 41 Conakry
Template:Country data Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau 36,120 1,533,964 2009 43 Bissau
Template:Country data LiberiaLiberia 111,370 3,441,790 2009 31 Monrovia
Template:Country data MaliMali 1,240,000 12,666,987 2009 10 Bamako
Template:Country data MauritaniaMauritania 1,030,700 3,129,486 2009 3 Nouakchott
Template:Country data NigerNiger 1,267,000 15,306,252 2009 12 Niamey
Template:Country data NigeriaNigeria 923,768 166,629,000 2012 180 Abuja
Template:Country data Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Template:Country data Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom) 420 7,728 2012 13 Jamestown
Template:Country data SenegalSenegal 196,190 13,711,597 2009 70 Dakar
Template:Country data Sierra LeoneSierra Leone 71,740 6,440,053 2009 90 Freetown
Template:Country data TogoTogo 56,785 6,019,877 2009 106 Lomé
  Africa Total 30,368,609 1,001,320,281 2009 33

References[tshintsha | edit source]

Template:Country data 2