Imithi

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Imithi ejikeleze i-lake.
ukungcangcazela kwe-Aspen ngemibala yayo yasentwasa-ntlobo
Strangler fig umthi eCosta Rica. Ekuhlaleni waziwa ngokuba Guanacaste.

Umthi sisityalo esikhula sibe sinesiqu kunye namasebe aso zonke zenziwe ngokhuni. Ungaphila iminyaka emininzi. Mane amalungu omthi nanga:ziingcambu, ypali, ngamasebe, kunye namagqabi.

Iingcambu zomthi zihlala phantsi komhlaba. Mnye umahluko apho kungenzeki kanjalo kukwiingcambu zomthi imangrove.[1] Umthi omnye uneengcambu ezininzi. Iingcambu zothwala ukutya kunye namanzi emhlabeni usebenzisa umzimba namasebe awo, aze athumele emagqabini omthi. Iyakwazi nokuphefumla umoya. [1] Ngamanye amaxesha, owona msebenzi weengcambu ukwiingcambu zeaerial root, osenokunika inkxaso, njengoko kunjalo kumthi weiBhanyan.

Umzimba sesona siqu sikhulu somthi. Umzimba wogqunywe ngexolo elirhabaxa elilukhuni elikhusela eluwukhuselayo ukuba ungonakali. Amasebe amila apha esiqwini somthi. Anabela ngaphandle emacaleni ukuze amagqabi afumane imitha yelanga.

Amagqabi omthi aluhlaza ngombala amaxesha amaninzi, kodwa ingabonakala ngemibala emininzi, indlela emile ngayo, kunye nobukhulu bemilinganiselo yayo. Amagqabi akhongozela imitha yelanga aze asebenzise amanzi kunye nokutya okuze kuhamba ngeengcambu nto leyo ekhulisa umthi, utsho ukwazi nokuqhama.

Imithi kunye nenkanga zifunxa amanzi kunye necarbon dioxide zize sikhuphe ioxygen enokukhanya kwelanga ukuze kwenzeke iswekile. kuyaphikisana ke noko kwenzeka kwizilwanyana xa ziphefumla. Izityalo nazo ziyaphefumla zisebenzisa i- oxygen kanye njengezilwanyana. Ziphila nge-oxygen ne-carbon dioxide.

Amalungu emithi[tshintsha | edit source]

uHlobo lomthi iBeech amagqabi.
Umthi iingcambu zinika ukumila komthi zizisa namanzi kunye neetyuwa. Umhlaba ukhukhulisekile apha ezingcanjini zomthi we"pine" omncinane.
imigca emdaka phakathi kombindi womthi kunye nexolo iimedullary rays, zizo ezivumela iityuwa zomhlaba ukuba zihambe ngokukhululekileyo zisihla zinyuka kwesi siqu somthi.

Amalungu omthi ziingcambu, iziqu, amasebe, izikhondo somthi kunye namagqabi. Iziqu zemithi zenziwe kuphela ngeezakhi ezithwala izakha mzimba (ixylem ne iphloem). Ukhuni lwenziwe ngee"cells" zexylem, nange-bark eyenziwe nge-phloem nezinye izakhi ezingaphandle kwe-vascular cambium.

Ukukhula kwesiqu somthi[tshintsha | edit source]

Njengokuba umthi ukhula, ungavelisa izangqa ezibonisa ukukhula njengoko ukhuni olutsha lungqengqe phantsi lujikeleze oludala. lungakhula lude lubeneminyaka eliwaka. kwindawo apho kukho imozulu etshintsha-tshintshayo, ukhuni oluveliswayo ngamaxesha onyaka ahlukileyo izangqa zingamane zisiba bukhanya ziohinde zibemdaka. Apho imozulu ishushu, nakwimozulu ekwiingingqi ezikufuphi neEquator enexesha lonyaka elimanzi-nelomileyo ngokutshintshatshintshana kwazo, izangqa zokukhula komthi zibakho ngonyaka, ipere nganye yezazinge ezibukhanya nezimdaka ngombala ibonakalisa okokuba umthi unonyaka omnye ubudala. Kwiindawo apho kukho amaxesha amabini ngonyaka apho kubamanzi okanye kome, kusenokuba kho iipere ezimbini zezazinge ezibukhanya nezimdaka ngebala ngonyaka; kwaye kwezinye (kwiingignqi ezizinkqantosi yimbalela apho imvula ihlala-ihlale ibekho), kungakho isazinge esitsha sokukhula kwimvula nganye.[2]

Kwiingingqi ezingqonge i-Equator amahlathi emvula, ezinemozulu esoloko isina unyaka wonke, oku kukhula kwemithi kuba yinto eqhubekayo. Izazinge zomthi asinto esoloko ibonakala kunjalo nje akukho tshintsho apha emthini. Kwntsapho zemithi ezinezazinge qho ngonyaka, ezi zazinge zingabalwa kutsho kufunyanwe ubudala bomthi. Ngale ndlela, iinkuni ezithathwe emithini kwixesha langaphambili ingaziwa ubudala bayo, kuba ubukhulu bezazinge bahluke kakhulu. Le ke kuthiwa yidendrochronology. Imbalwa kakhulu imithi yetropika engabalelwa iminyaka yayo ngokuchanekileyo.

Iingcambu[tshintsha | edit source]

Iingcambu zomthi zingaphantsi komhlaba, zinika amalungu omthi angaphandle komhlaba ukomelela, kwaye apha emhlabeni zitsala [[amanzi] kunye neenezakha mzimba ezifunwa ngumthi. Imithi emininzi ifuna uncedo lweenkowane ukuze ikwazi ukuzifunxa kakuhle izakha mzimba ezifunwa ngumthi: le ke kuthiwa yimycorrhiza. Uninzi lweibiomass yomthi luvela kwicarbon dioxide ekuziwe nayo emoyeni (jonga photosynthesis). Ngaphezu komhlaba, isiqu somthi siwunika umphakamo umthi ukuya kumasebe awo ekukhula kuwo amagqabi, ekhuphisana kunye nezinye iintsapho okanye iintlobo ngokufumana iukukhanya kwelanga. Kwimithi emininzi, ukulandelelana kwamasebe kwenza ukuba amagqabi avelele elangeni kangcono.

Nezinye izinto ezingumahluko[tshintsha | edit source]

Akusiyiyo yonke imithi enala malungu omzimba akhankanywe apha ngasentla. Umzekelo, imithi emininzi ye-palm ayinamasebe, isaguaro cactus zaseMantla eMelika azinamagqabi asebenzayo, umthi wee-''fern'' ayivelisi maxolo arhabaxa, njalo njalo. Xa sijonga ukumila nobukhulu bayo, zonke ezi zityalo zithahwa nje ngemithi xa zizonke. Imithi yahluka-hlukene kakhulu. Isityalo esikumila kunje sifana nqwa nomthi, kodwa sibe sona isisityalo esincinane, esineziqu ezininzi kunye/okanye namasebe akhulela kufuphi nomhlaba, kuthiwa lityholo (okanye inkanga). Nangona oku kuyinyaniso, akukho mahluko ucacileyo phakathi kwamatyholo ne,ithi. Sijonge ubuncinane baso esi sityalo, ibonsai izityalo bezingenakuba 'yimithi', kodwa ke masingabhidanisi indlela ezimile ngayo izinto kunye nobukhulu bazo. Imbewu ye-spruce alingeni ncam kwindlela ochazwa ngayo umthi, kodwa zonke ii-spruces ziyimithi.

Ukwahlulwa kwayo[tshintsha | edit source]

Umthi luhlobo lwesityalo esingafunyanwa simi ngeendlela ezininzi kunye nosapho lwezityalo. Imithi ibonisa iindlela ezininzi ekhula ngayo, ukumila nohlobo lwegqabi, bark traits and organs.

Indlela emile ngayo imithi itshintshe ngokwahlukeneyo kwintlobo zezityalo ezingazalaniyo, kwimpendulo ebhekisa kwiingxaki ezikwanjalo (ezomthi). malunga nama-100,000 eentlobo zemithi, inani leentlobo zemithi emhlabeni wonke jikelele linga linye lelesine kuzo zonke iintlobo zezityalo.[3] Uninzi lwemithi lukhula kwiindawo zetropika kwihlabathi kwaye uninzi lwesi ndawo belungekade luhlolwe ziingcali zezityalo (zaafunda izityalo), besenza umahluko phakathi kweentlobo zezityalo kodwa ukwahlukana kwazo bekungekaqondqa kakuhle. [4]

Eyona mithi yokuqala imithi yefen, umsila wamahashe kunye nelycophytes, ekhula emahlathini ngexesha le-Carboniferous; iifeni ezintathu zisekho, kodwa imithi yemisila yehashe kunye nowelycophytes yiyo kuphela esekhona nayo akasuki kuluhlu lwemithi yefeni. Emva koko, kwixesha leTriassic, iconifers, iginkgos, icycads kunye nezinye iigymnosperm ezibonakala zinwenwa, kunjalo nje zilandela izityalo eziziintyatyambo kwixesha leCretaceous. uninzi lwemithi namhlanje luzizityalo ezineetyatyambo (iiAngiosperms) kunye neconifers.

Igcuntswana lemithi ekhula kunye kuthiwa yigrove okanye icopse, kwaye nomhlaba owogqunywe ngemithi eminyeneyo ekuthiwa ihlathi.

Records[tshintsha | edit source]

Eyona mithi mikhulu ngesiqu[tshintsha | edit source]

Eyona mithi mikhulu ngesiqu yiAfrican Baobab: iGlencoe Baobab (umlinganiselo wayo ukufuphi nomhlaba), kwiPhondo laseLimpopo, eMzantsi Afrika.[5] Lo mthi wahlukana kubini ngeyeNkanga ngo-2009 ngoku eyona baobab inkulu kungayiSunland Baobab (eMzantsi Afrika) ngobukhulu bayo obungama-10.64 m kunye nomlinganiselo ongama-33.4 m.

Eminye imithi ihluma iziqu ezininzi umnye (nokuba zisuka kumthi omnye okanye kwimithi emininzi) ekhula kunye. Umthi iSacred Fig ngumzekelo ocacileyo wemithi enje, kongezeleleka 'iziqu' ngokuthi kumile iingcambu ezixananazileyo zisuka phantsi kwamanye amasebe, wona athi atyebe abe makhulu xa iingcambu sezide zafikelela emhlabeni ukuze zenze ezinye iziqu zomthi ezintsha; umthi weSacred Fig unganeziqu ezingamakhulu-khulu.

Ubudala bemithi[tshintsha | edit source]

Ubomi bomthi buqinisekiswa zizazinge ezibonakalisa ukukhula kwawo. Oku kungabonakala xa umthi ugawuliwe okanye kummongo othathwe ukusuka ekupheleni komthi ukuya esizikithini sawo. Uqikelelo olululo lungakho kuphela kwimithi ekwenze kuyo izazinge zokhulula kwawo, singathi nje ezo zenzeka ngokwemo yezulu ngokwamaxesha onyaka. Imithi esoloko ikhula kwimozulu engatshintshiyo efana neyaseTropika isoloko ikhula kwaye ayinazazinge zibonakalayo zokukhula. Kungenzeka kuphela kwimithi eqinileyo kwisizikithi kwisizikithi semithi; imithi emidala emininzi ihlala ingamaholo njengokhuni olufileyo kodwa lube lungaboli. Inxalenye yezi ntlobo, uqikelelo lobudala luye lwenziwa kujongwe isantya sokukhula komthi esikhoyo. Kodwa iziphumo zisoloko zingconwana kunamaqashiso okanye kunokwenza ngokuqina kwentloko. U-White ucebisa ngendlela ekungaqikelelwa ngayo ubudala bemithi emide nemidala eUnited Kingdom ngokuthi kuqhathaniswe ubukhulu besiqu somthi kunye, nesimbo okhula ngaso umthi kunye nobudala.[6]

Ubudala beyona mithi midala buhlalutyiwe apha ngezanzi:

  1. iGreat Basin Bristlecone Pine (iMethuselah) iPinus longaeva: iminyaka engama-4,844 [7]
  2. i-Alerce: eminyaka ingama-3,622 [7]
  3. iGiant Sequoia: eminyaka ingama-3,266 [7]
  4. iSugi: esingama 3,000 eminyaka [8]
  5. iHuon-pine: engama-2,500 eminyaka[7]

ezinye iintlobo-ntlobo ezikrokrelwa ukuba zifikelela kwiminyaka yobudala enomahluko, iquka imithi yaseYurophu i-Yew iTaxus baccata (ingangaphaya kweminyaka engama-2,000 [9][10]) kunye neRedcedar yasentshona iThuja plicata. Owona mthi mdala iYew waseYurophu nowaziwa kakhulu yiLlangernyw Yew kwiyadi yasecaweni yasekuhlaleni kwaseLlangernyw eMantla eWales noqikelelwa ukuba uphakathi kwama-4,000 ukuya kuma-5,000 ubudala.

Obona budala buchaziweyo bomthi i-angiosperm bungama-2293 eminyaka kwiSri Maha Bodhi iSacred Fig (iFicus religiosa) eyatyalwa ngo-288 BC e-Anuradhapura, eSri Lanka; kuthiwa ke ngowona mthi mdala owathi watyalwa ngesandla somntu nonomhla owatyalwa ngawo owaziwayo.

Uqikelelo lwexabiso lomthi[tshintsha | edit source]

Uphando sele lubonisile okokuba imithi inegalelo elingama-27% exabiso elibonakalyo kwiintengiso ezithile.

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Mangrove Trees". Naturia.per.sg. http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/mangrove_trees.htm.
  2. Mirov, N.T. 1967. The genus Pinus. Ronald Press.
  3. "TreeBOL project". http://www.talkbx.com/2008/05/02/scientists-to-capture-tree-dna-worldwide/#more-835. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
  4. Friis, Ib, and Henrik Balslev. 2005. Plant diversity and complexity patterns: local, regional, and global dimensions : proceedings of an international symposium held at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen, Denmark, 25–28 May 2003. Biologiske skrifter, 55. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. pp 57-59.
  5. "List of Champion Trees published for comment, 2005, South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry". http://www2.dwaf.gov.za/dwaf/download.asp?f=4148___list+of+proposed+Champion+trees.pdf&docId=4148. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
  6. White J. 1990. Estimating the age of large and veteran trees in Britain. Forestry Commission Edinburgh.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Gymnosperm Database: How old is that tree?. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  8. Suzuki E. 1997. The dynamics of old Cryptomeria japonica forest on isiqithi iYakushima. Tropics 6(4): 421–428. online
  9. Harte J. 1996. How old is that old yew? At the Edge 4: 1-9. Available online
  10. Kinmonth F. 2006. Ageing the yew - no core, no curve? International Dendrology Society Yearbook 2005: 41-46 ISSN 0307-332X