Ukuqelelana kwabantu

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ukuqelelana kwabantu[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Imvelaphi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Le nkulungwane idlulileyo ibone uthotho lobhubhane lomkhuhlane oluthe lwasasazeka ngokukhawuleza kwihlabathi jikelele. Intsusa yalo bhubhane isuka kwiivayirasi zomkhuhlane wezilwanyana ezijikeleza ngokwendalo emoyeni zosulele iintaka kunye neentlobo zezilwanyana.[1] Amaxesha ngamaxesha ezivayirasi zezilwanyana ziyaguqulwa zibe ziintsholongwane zabantu, ezithi ke zidluliselwe kumntu nomntu. Zibizwa ngokuba lusulelo lwe-zoonotic kuba zisuka kwizilwanyana.

Ukuqelelana kwabantu (ngokuchanekileyo kubizwa ngokuba kukumela mgama ngokomzimba) kubalulekile ekunqandeni nasekumiseni ukusasazeka kwalo bhubhane womkhuhlane ofana ne-COVID-19. Ukumela mgama ngokomzimba ngokulula kuthetha ukugcina umgama phakathi kwakho nabanye abantu odibana nabo kwindawo zikawonke-wonke, okanye ukuzinqanda ungayi kwiindawo ezinjalo xa ukwazi. [2] UGqr Jeff Kwong oyingcali yezifo ezosulelayo we kwiDyunivesithi yaseToronto, ucebisa athi igama elithi ukumela mgama ngokomzimba kuchaphazela ngokuchanekileyo into ekufuneka yenziwe ngabantu ukuthintela usulelo kwaye oko akuthethi ukubekelwa bucala. [3] Iingcali zigxininisile kwisidingo sokunxibelelana nabahlobo kunye nabo ubathandayo ngexesha lobhubhane.

Ukuqonda umsebenzi wokuqelelana kwabantu, siqala ngokujonga kwakhona imodeli elula yokuthibaza ubhubhane eyakhiwe ziingcali zesifo esosulelayo. Kule modeli ilula, kusetyenziswa idatha kunye nezifundo ezityhilekayo zika 2019/2020 ze-Covid-19 engubhubhane. Siqala ngedatha evela e-China, apho lo bhubhane waqala khona emva koko silandele ukukhula nokunaba kobhubhane we-Covid-19 eMzantsi Afrika. Oku kunika isiseko sokuvavanya ifuthe lokuqelelana kwabantu ekuthinteleni nasekuthomalaliseni ukunaba kobhubhane i-Covid-19. Siqukumbela inqaku ngokujonga indlela zokuba iimpembelelo ezimbi zokuqelelana kwabantu ngokomzimba zinokuthintelwa kwaye zoyiswe njani.

Imodeli ebonakalayo yobhubhane/umbulalazwe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Izifo ezosulelayo ezifana ne-COVID-19 zihlala zisasazeka ngezigaba ezintathu. Ezi zigaba zibonakaliswa kwigrafu engezantsi.

[insert graph]

Umzobo: Igrafu 1 ukuthomalalisa ubhubhane ngu Toby Morris. TheSpinoff 9 Match 2020 [4]


Iingcali zesifo esosulelayo zibhekisa kwezi zigaba zintathu zibonakaliswe kwigrafu engaphezulu njengobhubhane owosulelayo. Ubhubhane owosulelayo ubonakalisa umfanekiso wenani lwabantu abafunyaniswe benentsholongwane eyosulelayo kunye nenqanaba apho usuleleko lusasazeka khona ngokuhamba kwexesha.

  1. Isigaba sokuqala senzeka ekuqaleni kobhubhane. Ukuba umntu usebenzisa ukusasazeka kwesifo seKhovidi njengomzekelo, oku kuya kuphawula ukuqala kokusasazeka kwesi sifo, xa bekukho abantu abambalwa abafunyaniswe benaso.
  2. Isigaba sesibini sobhubhane owosulelayo sibonisa "isigaba soluntu".[5] Kulapho amanqanaba osulelo loluntu akhula khona njengoko amasuntswana abantu esuleleka. Esi sigaba siphawulwa kukonyuka okukhulu kwenani lwabantu abafunyaniswe beneKhovidi mihla le, kuya kusiba nzima ngakumbi ukulandela umkhondo wentlalo. Abaphathi abaninzi baphendule ngokuvala izithuthi zikawonke-wonke kwizixeko ezichaphazelekayo kwaye banciphisa ukufuduka kwabantu, ngokuhambelana neMigaqo yeMpilo yeHlabathi (International Health Regulations). [6] Imigaqo yeMpilo yeHlabathi sisakhelo esisemthethweni esenziwe nguMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi (WHO) ukunqanda, ukulawula kunye nokuphendula kumngcipheko wezempilo woluntu onokuthi usasazeke phakathi kwamazwe. La manyathelo asembindini weprothokholi yokuhamba nokuqelelelana kwabantu (eziphononongwa ngakumbi ngezantsi). Ziyilelwe "ukuthibaza usasazeko" ngokunciphisa inani losulelo olutsha. Olu luvo luboniswe kwigrafu engezantsi.


Umzobo: 2 Ukuthibaza usasazeko

  1. Isigaba sesithathu sobhubhane osulelayo kubonisa ukuba ukugqabhuka kungeniswe phantsi kolawulo, okanye akukho lusulelo lutsha lunokwenzeka.

Ngokuchasene nale mvelaphi kucacile ukuba izifo ezingubhubhane ezosulelayo njenge Khovidi zisasazeka ngokukhawuleza kubemi boluntu njengesiphumo ngqo sokunxibelelana kwabantu. Ukuhambela okanye ukumela mgama ngokwasentlalweni kunye nangokomzimba kwabantu yenye yeendlela eziphambili ezisetyenziselwa ukuphazamisa kwaye nokubamba ukusasazeka kwezifo ezosulelayo.

Ukumela qelele ebantwini ngokomzimba[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukumela qelele ngokomzimba sisenzo sezempilo sikawonke-wonke esijolise ekuthinteleni abantu abagulayo ukuba bangadibani nabantu abasempilweni ukuze banciphise amathuba okusasazeka kwezifo ezosulelayo nezinobungozi. Kubandakanya amanyathelo amakhulu anjengokunyanzela ukumiswa kweedolophu kunye nelizwe liphela kunye nezenzo ezizodwa njengokukhetha ukuphepha iindawo zikawonke-wonke. Amanyathelo amakhulu ubukhulu becala abekwa rhoqo ngabasemagunyeni njengoorhulumente besizwe. Umzekelo wenyathelo elinjalo kukumiswa kwelizwe ngokubanzi eMzantsi Afrika ukususela ezinzulwini zobusuku nge-26 kaMatshi 2020 kude kubesezinzulwini zobusuku bange-16 ka-Epreli ngo-2020, kwaze emva koko kwandiswa ezinye iintsuku ezili-14. Ukumiswa kwelizwe kwatyalwa ngokwecandelo lama-27 (2) loMthetho woLawulo lweNtlekele.[7] (Disaster Management Act) kwaye kwabekwa uluhlu lwezithintelo, olujolise ekunciphiseni ukunxibelelana ngokwasemzimbeni phakathi kwabantu. Phakathi kwezinye izinto, icandelo 11B lemigaqo:

  • Ukuthintela bonke abantu ukuba bahlale emakhayeni abo, ngaphandle kwabo bazisa iinkonzo ezibalulekileyo kwaye kungenjalo bavumela ukuhamba kuphela xa umntu eya kufuna izinto neenkonzo ezifanelekileyo.
  • Inqanda zonke iindibano zikawonke-wonke ngaphandle kwemingcwabo (ekungavumelekanga ukuba izinyaswe ngabantu abangaphezu kwama-50).
  • Inqanda ukundwendwela phakathi kwamaphondo
  • Ukunqanda ukundwendwela phakathi kwezixeko ezinkulu kunye nezithili
  • Ivumela kuphela amashishini athengisa nabonelela ngeenkonzo ezibalulekileyo ukuze asebenze.
  • Ivumela iivenkile ezithengisa izinto eziyimfuneko kuluntu ukuba zisebenze kwaye ziqinisekisa umgama oyimitha enye phakathi kwabathengi kwaye zinamathela kwiimeko zezococeko (ezinje ngokuhambisa ucoceko lwezandla kunye nezixhobo) kunye neendlela zempilo zikawonke-wonke ezinciphisa ukusuleleka yi-COVID-19.

Imigaqo nayo ithi:

  • Ukuthintela ukuhamba ngezamanzi kunye nezomoya.
  • Ukuthintela ukuthengiswa kotywala kunye nemveliso zecuba.
  • Ukucutha ukufikelela kwizithuthi zikawonke-wonke. [8]

Ukongeza le migaqo ikwaxhobisa abasemagunyeni kuzwelonke nabamaphondo ukuba bakwazi ukubeka abantu abathile bucala. Amanyathelo wokuba umntu makahlale yedwa ekhusini abeka imida yokuhamba kwabantu abanokuthi babe nakho ukosuleleka yintsholongwane yekhorona ngokubasa kwindawo yokugcinwa yodwa kangangexesha elithile elichaziweyo. Imilinganiselo yokuhlala bucala yahlukanisa abantu abosulelwe yintsholongwane yekhorona kubantu abasempilweni.

UMzantsi Afrika - ome qelele[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Onke la manyathelo abe neempembelelo ezibonakalayo ekucothiseni nasekubambeni ukusasazeka kwentsholongwane ikhorona kwaye uMzantsi Afrika uvele njengenkokheli yehlabathi ekubambeni esi sifo. [x] UMzantsi Afrika, awukhange ulandele indlela elindelekileyo yokubamba lo bhubhane wosulelayo. " Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, itsibe isigaba sesibini sobhubhane owosulelayo kuba akukabikho kunyuka lukhulu kumanani okanye kwisigaba sosulelo loluntu. Endaweni yoko iqondo lokuchongwa losulelo lwabantu abatsha luye lwehla lisuka kuma-42% laya kwi-4% emva kokuba kwaziswe ukumiswa kwelizwe.[9] Oku kubonisa ukuba usulelo loluntu lwalusezantsi kwaye ngenxa yoko bekukho ukwehla kwenani losulelo olutsha.

Ilizwe lithumele iqela labasebenzi bezeMpilo yoLuntu ukuba bajonge esi sifo eluntwini kwindlu nendlu.

Ukuthetha nesizwe kumabonakude ngomhla we-9 ka-Epreli ngonyaka ka-2020 uMongameli u-Cyril Ramaphosa wakuchaza oku kumanqanaba aphezulu okuhambisana nemithetho yokumiswa kwelizwe:

Nithe nakuhlonipha ukumiswa kwelizwe kwaye ikakhulu nagcina imigaqo. Nithe nayamkela imiqobo eqatha ekuzuleni kwenu kunye nenkululeko yemihla ngemihla esingayithatheli ngqalelo. ”[10]

Iingcali zesifo esosulelayo ziye zalumkisa ukuba ukwanda kosulelo olutsha kusenokwenzeka. Ungenelelo lukarhulumente, "lukucothisile ukusasazeka kwentsholongwane, usasazeko libe nefuthe kwaye sifumene ixesha."[xiii] Ngaso esizizathu, ukunyenyiswa kwamanqanaba okumiswa kwelizwe kuzakuqaliswa.

Ukuvala[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Intsholongwane ye Khovidi sisifo esosulelayo esiye sasasazeka ngokukhawuleza kwihlabathi liphela njengoko ingxelo yokuqala yaxelwa kwisixeko saseWuhan kwiphondo lase-Hubei e-Tshayina ekupheleni konyaka ka-2019. Iingcali zonyango zase-Tshayina zichonge "imigca emibini ephambili yokulwa nesi soyikiso sempilo yoluntu: ( 1) ukulawula kunye nokuthintela lo bhubhane (2) nophando lwezenzululwazi. "[11] Abezenzululwazi baseTshayina kunye noochwephesha bezonyango banegalelo elikhulu ekuchongeni kwangoko le ntsholongwane ye Khorona kwaye ubunkokheli boMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi (WHO) babubalulekile ekuthini baphendule kwihlabathi lonke ngobhubhane owosulelayo oye wanwenwa ngo-2020.

Ukuqelelana kwabantu ngokomzimba nasekuhlaleni kungqineke kubalulekile kakhulu ekunqandeni nasekulawuleni kokusasazeka kwesi sifo njengoko ubungqina obuvela eMzantsi Afrika bubonisa ngokucacileyo. Amaziko Olawulo Lwezifo kunye noThintelo (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) acebise ukuba, “Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuhlala unxibelelana nabahlobo kunye nosapho abangahlaliyo ekhayeni lakho. Ukufowuna, ukuncokola ngevidiyo okanye ukuhlala unxibelelana usebenzisa amakhasi onxibelelwano. Wonke umntu uphendula ngendlela eyahlukileyo kwiimeko zoxinzelelo kwaye ukumela bucala kumntu omthandayo kunokubanzima kakhulu." [12] Olu xinzelelo lwenziwa ngokucacileyo luloyiko, ixhala kunye nokungaqiniseki okuhambelana nobhubhane wehlabathi. Iingcali zonyango zicebisa ukuba kunikwe ingqalelo ethile ekunciphiseni iziphumo zengqondo zokumela qelele eluntwini.

Reference List[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. "WHO | Pandemic influenza preparedness and response". https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/pandemic_guidance_04_2009/en/. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  2. CDC (2020-02-11). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (in en-us). https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/social-distancing.html. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  3. March 13, Katie Pearce / Published; 2020 (2020-03-13). "What is social distancing and how can it slow the spread of COVID-19?" (in en). https://hub.jhu.edu/2020/03/13/what-is-social-distancing/. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  4. Wiles, Siouxsie (2020-03-09). "The three phases of Covid-19 – and how we can make it manageable". https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/09-03-2020/the-three-phases-of-covid-19-and-how-we-can-make-it-manageable/. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  5. https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/09-03-2020/the-three-phases-of-covid-19-and-how-we-can-make-it-manageable
  6. "WHO | International Health Regulations (2005)". http://www.who.int/ihr/publications/9789241580496/en/. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  7. "Disaster Management Act 57 of 2002 | South African Government". https://www.gov.za/documents/disaster-management-act. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  8. "Template:Citation error". https://www.greengazette.co.za/documents/regulation-gazette. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  9. "Press Releases and Notices" (in en-ZA). https://sacoronavirus.co.za/category/press-releases-and-notices/. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  10. "President Cyril Ramaphosa: Extension of Coronavirus COVID-19 lockdown to the end of April | South African Government". https://www.gov.za/speeches/president-cyril-ramaphosa-extension-coronavirus-covid-19-lockdown-end-april-9-apr-2020-0000. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  11. "Archive of "Chinese Medical Journal".". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/2337/. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
  12. CDC (2020-02-11). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (in en-us). https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/social-distancing.html. Retrieved 2020-07-04.