Uhlobo lokuphefumla olungeempumlo

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Uhlobo lokuphefumla olungeempumlo  luchaza ukubaluleka kokuphefumla ngeempumlo (okanye ezinye iindlela zokuphefumla ngamalungu omzimba abonakalyo, kuxhomekeke kuhlobo olo lwesinlwanyana) xa kuthelekiswa nokuphefumla ngomlomo. Eli gama lingamlahlekisa umntu, njengoko lisenza ngathi isilwanyana asina ndlela yimbi yokuphefumla ngaphandle kokuphefumla ngeempumlo kuphela; libe eli gama, lidla ngokusetyenziswa ukuchaza iimeko apho kuthi ukuphefumla ngomlomo kusenokuba yinto enokwenzeka, kodwa sibe sona isilwanyana singakukhethi. Kungenjalo, eli gama liye lachazwa ngabanye njengesakhono sokuphefumla ngeempumlo ngeli lixa isilwanyana sisaginyayo.[1] Nangona esi sakhono sisesixhaphakileyo kwezo zidalwa ziphefumla ngeempumlo, eyonanto icacileyo yeyokokuba le nkcazo ayibonakalisi kubopheleleka kwesilwanya ekubeni siphefumle ngeempulo. Nakwezo zibophelelekileyo ekubeni ziphefumle ngeempumlo ezifana namahashe, iimpuku nee-rodents, kukho indlela ecace gca yokuhamba komoya osuka emlonyeni usiya emiophungeni  moya lowo onokusetyenziswa kwi-endotracheal intubation. Kuthiwa ukupgefumla ngeempumlo okunyanzelisiweyo kuyi-adaptation kwaye kubaluleke ngakumbi kumaxhoma, njengoko ivumela isilwanyana ukuba sizondle ngeli lixa sisonga isakhono saso sokujoja amaxhoba ngevumba.  [2]

Abantu[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Iimveku zisoloko zichazwa njengezidalwa eziphefumla ngeempumlo, kuba kaloku zikhetha ukuphefumla ngeempumlo zazo kunemilomo yazo. Nangona kunjalo uninzi lweemveku luyakwazi ukuphefumla ngemilomo yazo xa zimfixene. Kukwakho iimveku ezithile ezibakwiimeko ezifana ne-choanal atresia meko ezo ezikhokelele ekufeni okwenziwa kukumfixana kweempumlo. Kwezi meko kukho amaxesha e-cyclical ye-cyanosis. Imveku iqala izame ukuphefumla ngempumlo, kwaye xa ingakwazi, kwenzeka i- hypercapnia, kwaye abantwana abaninzi baqala ngokukhala. Besakhala njalo, kutsho kuvuleke umlombo babe baqala ukuphefumla ngomlomo ngolo hlobo, ize ke yona i-cyanosis iye incipha ngokuncipha. Ixesha lokwenzeka koku ke liyashiyashiyana de usana lube luqalisa ukuphefumla ngomlomo,  kanti ke ezinye iintsana azisayi kuze ziyeke ukuphefumla ngeempulo.  Bekukwathiwa iimveku  azinakubanakho ukusoloko ziphefumla ngomlomo ixesha elide, ngenxa yobuthakathaka bezihlunu zazo ezibonakala zingenakuwuvingca umzila osezimpumlweni owenzelwe ukuhamba komoya oluphefumla ngawo olu sana, zibonakale zingenakho nokuvula umzila osemlonyeni wokuhamba komoya oyakwenza okokuba usana lukwazi ukuphefumla ngomlo.[3]

Ezinye izilwanyana[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Amahashe asoloko ethathwa njengezilwanyana eziphefumla ngeempumlo.  Eli gama lilelichanekileyo xa lisetyenziswa emahasheni,  kuba kaloku ngokwendlela adalwe ngayo (ngokwe-normal anatomy) ayiwavumeli amahashe ukuba aphefumle ngomlomo.  I-epiglottis ihleli ngephezu kwenkalakahla ethambileyo nebizwa ngokuba yi-soft palate oku kwenzeka xa isilwanyana esi singaginyi nto, kutsho kuvingceke umzila ohamba umoya. Ukuphefumla ngomlomo kungenzeka xa kukho into engahambi kakuhle nengaqhelekanga kwindalo yesilwanyana eso. Umzekelo, ukufadalala komthambo wegazi (utsho uyeke ukuhambisa igazi) we-pharyngeal branch ye-vagus nerve kubangunozala wokufakelwa kwe-nkalakahla ethambileyo (DDSP),[4] kwaye oku kuthiwa kukhokhelela kwi-clinical syndrome esenokubandakanya ukuphefumla ngomlomo.[5] Nangona kunjalo, ukungaphefumli ngendlela efanelekileyo, kuquka nokuphazamiseka kokuvaleleka komoya ungahambi kakuhle kubonwa kwi- DDSP, kwaye isilwanyana asinakuqhuba kakuhle kule meko. 

Iimpuku nee-rodents zikwanyanzelekile ukuba ziphefumle ngeempumlo.  njengamahashe, indawo le emi kuyo i-epiglottis yenza okokuba isoloko idibana kwi-caudal rim yenkalakahla ethambileyo, kutsho kuvaleke vingci umlomo we-pharynx osuka kumizila yomoya esuka ngezantsi.[6] Nangoku sele kunjalo, nokokuba iimpuku ezimizila yayo ehamba umoya yomoya ingasentla echatshsazelwe yintsholongwane emandla ysele zinentsholongwane emandla, iyakuzama ukuphefumla ngomlomo wayo. 

Ezinye izilwanyana ezininzi, ezifana neekati, izinja, nabantu abadala, ziyakwazi ukuphefumla ngokupheleleyo ngemilomo, nangeempulo zazo.  [7]

Funda nale mibhalo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. SIDS and Otitis media – an anatomical perspective, Presented by: Brian Palmer, D.D.S., December 2001.
  2. Negus, VE (1927) "The Function of the Epiglottis." Journal of Anatomy 62 (Pt 1): 1–8 PMC 1250045 PMID 17104162 
  3. Bergeson, P. S.; Shaw, J. C. (2001) "Are Infants Really Obligatory Nasal Breathers?" Clinical Pediatrics 40 (10): 567–9 PMID 11681824 doi:10.1177/000992280104001006 
  4. Holcombe, SJ; Derksen, FJ; Stick, JA; Robinson, NE (1998) "Effect of bilateral blockade of the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve on soft palate function in horses." American journal of veterinary research 59 (4): 504–8 PMID 9563638 
  5. Susan J. Holcombe (1998) "Neuromuscular Regulation of the Larynx and Nasopharynx in the Horse" Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the AAEP 44: 26 
  6. Stephen J. Hernandez-Divers (2007) "The Rabbit Respiratory System: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology" Proceedings of the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians: 61–68 
  7. Radostits, Otto M.; Mayhew, I. G. Joe; Houston, Doreen M., eds. (2000) Veterinary clinical examination and diagnosis Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders ISBN 0-7020-2476-7 

Uxhumano neminye imibhalo engaphandle kweli phepha. [tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

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