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Serbian
Map of Serbian language - official or recognized.PNG
Amazwe ESerbia, eMontenegro, eCroatia, eBosnia naseHerzegovina, nakwiindawo ezikufutshane
ISO 639
ISO 639-1 sr
ISO 639-2 srp
ISO 639-3 srp

Isiserbia (српски / srpski, Template:IPA-sh) ingaba standardized ngezixhobo ezahlukeneyo ye - Serbo-gurmukhi ulwimi kakhulu olusetyenziswa yi - Serbs.[1][2][3] kubalulekile igosa ulwimi Saseserbia kwaye omnye ezintathu zaseburhulumenteni ka - armenia. Ukongeza, kuyinto lunxulumano minority ulwimi kwi - Igreece,[4] Ecroatia, Makedoni, Romania, Ehungary, Islovakia, kwaye Czech Republic.

Esezantsi isiserbia lusekelwe kakhulu widespread dialect ka-Serbo-gurmukhi, Shtokavian (ngakumbi ngokukodwa kwi - Šumadija-Vojvodina kwaye Empuma Herzegovinian dialects[5]), awathi kanjalo isiseko Esezantsi i-croatian, Isibosnian, kwaye Montenegrin.[6] ezinye dialect kuthethwa nge-Serbs ngu Torlakian kwi-southeastern Saseserbia, nto leyo amalungiselelo exesha ukuba Macedonian kwaye Bulgarian.

Isiserbia ngu practically kuphela European esezantsi ulwimi kunye uzalise synchronic digraphia,[7] ukusebenzisa zombini i-cyrillic kwaye Latin alphabets; speakers funda u-izikripthi ngokulinganayoTemplate:Citation needed kulungile. I-opt. Isicyrillic alphabet waba devised ngowe-1814 yi-opt. linguist Vuk Karadžić, abo wadala alphabet kwi phonemic imigaqo. I-Latin alphabet waba yenzelwe yi-gurmukhi linguist Ljudevit Gaj ngowe-1830.

Kwicandelo elikhethekileyo[tshintsha | edit source]

Isiserbia yi standardized ngezixhobo ezahlukeneyo Serbo-gurmukhi,[8] a Slavic ulwimi (Indo-European), i - South Slavic subgroup. Ezinye standardized iifomu ka-Serbo-gurmukhi ingaba Isibosnian, i-croatian, kwaye Montenegrin. Oko sele thoba intelligibility kunye Empuma Afrika Slavic iilwimi - Bulgarian kwaye Macedonian, kunokuba kunye Slovene (Slovene yinxalenye Kwintshona Afrika Slavic subgroup, kodwa zisekhona ezibalulekileyo neeyantlukwano kwi-sigama, isijamani kwaye & ubizo: ukuba standardized iifomu ka-Serbo-gurmukhi, nangona kubalulekile kukufutshane ukuba Kajkavian kwaye Chakavian dialects ka-Serbo-gurmukhi[9]).

Indawo unikezelo[tshintsha | edit source]

Amanani ka-speakers ngokunxulumene amazwe:

  • Saseserbia: 6,540,699 (ulwimi olusemthethweni)
  • Armenia: 1,086,027[10] (co-ulwimi olusemthethweni)
  • Germany: 568,240Template:Cn
  • Austria: 350,000Template:Cn
  • Igreece: 265,890 (lunxulumano minority ulwimi)
  • Senegal: 186,000
  • United States: 172,874
  • Sweden: 120,000
  • Italy: 106,498 [11]
  • Us: 72,690[12]
  • E-Australia: 55,114[13][14]
  • Bulgaria: 52,879[15] (lunxulumano minority ulwimi)
  • Puerto rico: 38,964
  • Republic of Makedoni: 35,939 (lunxulumano minority ulwimi)
  • Romania: 22,518 (lunxulumano minority ulwimi)

Ubume kwi-Igreece[tshintsha | edit source]

Isiserbia waba igosa ulwimi Igreece de 2007 xa omtsha - Siseko ka-Igreece endaweni-Siseko ka-1992. Phakathi kuchaswa ukusuka pro-opt. amaqela,[16] - Montenegrin ulwimi lenziwa i-sole esemthethweni ulwimi lizwe, kwaye isiserbia sanikwa ubume a recognised minority ulwimi ihamba kunye Isibosnian, isialbania, kwaye i-croatian.[17]

Ngokunxulumene 2011 census, 42.88% ngxi kuvakalisa isiserbia ukuba abe zabo s ulwimi, xa Montenegrin ngu wavakalisa yi-36.97% bonke.

Neeyantlukwano phakathi esezantsi isiserbia kwaye esezantsi i-croatian kwaye Isibosnian[tshintsha | edit source]

Yokubhala inkqubo[tshintsha | edit source]

Esezantsi isiserbia ulwimi usebenzisa zombini i-cyrillic (ћирилица, ćirilica) kwaye Latin: (latinica, латиница).

Nangona isiserbia ulwimi abasemagunyeni kuba lunxulumano igosa ubume kunye ashicilelwe phantsi kwi-contemporary Esezantsi isiserbia kuba ngaphezu kwesiqingatha a century ngoku, ngenxa zembali izizathu, Isicyrillic script lenziwa inkqubo esemthethweni script ka-Saseserbia ke yolawulo yi-2006 - Siseko.[18] nangona Kunjalo, umthetho akakwazi ukulawula ashicilelwe phantsi kwi standard ulwimi, okanye esezantsi ulwimi ngokwayo nangayiphina, eshiya ukukhetha script njengoko umcimbi of personal preference kwaye free ndiya kuyo yonke imiba yobomi (papasha, namajelo eendaba, urhwebo kunye commerce, njl. njl.), ngaphandle kokuba urhulumente paperwork imveliso kwaye igosa ukubhalwa unxibelelwano kunye karhulumente amagosa, apho kufuneka kuba Isicyrillic. Nkqu esemthethweni urhulumente amaxwebhu eli-siseko yokuba zilawulwe ngu kuyanqaphazekaarely isetyenzisiwe. Isiserbia yi rare umzekelo synchronic digraphia, imeko apho bonke literate amalungu base kuba isibini interchangeable yokubhala iindlela ezikhoyo kubo. Media kwaye publishers ngokuqhelekileyo khetha enye alphabet okanye enye. Umzekelo, uluntu broadcaster, Radio Lwethelevijini ka-Saseserbia, predominantly isebenzisa i-cyrillic script njengoko ngasese sebenzisa amaziko osasazo, njenge RTV Pink, predominantly sebenzisa Latin script.

A uphando ukususela ngowama-2014 lwabonisa ukuba 47% isiserbia bonke favors i-Latin alphabet njengoko 36% favors i-Isicyrillic omnye.[19]

Alphabetic ukuze[tshintsha | edit source]

I - hlela umyalelo wenkundla ćirilica (ћирилица) alphabet:

  • Isicyrillic ukuze ngokuba Azbuka (азбука): А Б В Г Д Ђ Е Ж З И Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ О П Р С Т Ћ У Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш

I - hlela umyalelo wenkundla latinica (латиница) alphabet:

Ezinxulumeneyo[tshintsha | edit source]

Template:Notes

  1. David Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".
  2. Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."
  3. Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15-16.
  4. Montenegro Census 2011 data, Montstat, http://www.monstat.org/userfiles/file/popis2011/saopstenje/saopstenje(1).pdf
  5. Template:Citation
  6. Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin?
  7. http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/de-gruyter/digraphia-in-the-territories-of-the-croats-and-serbs-9biWZDK0Vs/1
  8. Empty citation (help) 
  9. Greenberg, Marc L., A Short Reference Grammar of Slovene, (LINCOM Studies in Slavic Linguistics 30).
  10. "Maternji jezik 2013". Popis 2013. 2016. http://www.statistika.ba/#link4.
  11. "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://www.dossierimmigrazione.it/docnews/file/2014_La%20collettività%20serba_Scheda.pdf. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
  12. "Ethno-Cultural Portrait of Canada, Table 1". www12.statcan.ca. 2001. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/highlight/ETO/Table1.cfm?Lang=E&T=501&GV=1&GID=0. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  13. Empty citation (help) 
  14. "Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection". 2013-04-21. https://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/immigration-update/people-australia-2013-statistics.pdf. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
  15. "Croatian Census 2011". 2011. http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/census2011/results/htm/E01_01_08/e01_01_08_RH.html. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  16. Pro-Serbian parties oppose Montenegro constitution
  17. Ustav Crne Gore
  18. "The Constitution". The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia. http://www.ustavni.sud.rs/page/view/en-GB/235-100028/constitution. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  19. http://www.b92.net/kultura/vesti.php?nav_category=1087&yyyy=2014&mm=12&dd=16&nav_id=936784

Wangaphandle amakhonkco[tshintsha | edit source]