Leishmaniasis

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Leishmaniasis
LeishmaniasisCutaneous leishmaniasis in the hand of a Central American adult
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the hand of a Central American adult
Uhlelo nezibonelelo zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10B55 B55
ICD/CIM-9085 085
DiseasesDB3266
MedlinePlus001386

I-Leishmaniasis, ekwapelwa njengo-leishmaniosis, isi sifo sibangelwa yi- protozoan parasite yohlobo lwe- Leishmania kwaye isasazwa kukutyiwa ziindidi ezithile ze-sandflies.[1] Isifo singabakho ngeendlela ezintathu ezintathu eziphambili: i-cutaneous, i-mucocutaneous, okanye i-visceral leishmaniasis.[1] Uhlobo lwe-cutaneous luzisa izilonda zesikhumba, ngelixa uhlobo lwe-mucocutaneous luzisa izilonda zesikhumba, zomlomo, nezempumlo, lona uhlobo lwe-visceral luqala ngezilonda zezikhumba luze kamva luzise umkhuhlane, iiseli ezibomvu zegazi eliphantsi, kwakunye nodakada nesibindi esandileyo.[1][2]

Izifo ezosulelayo ezisebantwini zibangelwa ziintlobo ezingaphezulu kwama-20 ze-Leishmania.[1] Iimeko zomngcipheko ziquka intlupheko, ukungondleki, ukupheliswa kwamahlathi, kunye nokwenziwa kweedolophu.[1] Zonke ezi ndidi zingaxilongwa ngokubonwa kwezifunxi-gazi ngaphantsi kwemayikhroskophu.[1] Ngokongezelelekleyo, isifo se-visceral singaxilongwa ngokuvavanywa kwegazi.[2]

I-Leishmaniasis ingathintelwa ngokuyinxenye ngokulala phantsi kweenethi ezinyangwe nge zibulala-zinambuzane.[1] Amanye amanyathelo aquka ukufefezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukubulala ii-sandflies kwanokunyanga abantu abanesifo kwangoko ukuthintela ukusasazeka kwaso ngakumbi.[1] Unyango oludingekayo luqondwa ngendawo esifumaneke kuyo isifo, iintlobo ze-Leishmania, kwakunye nohlobo lwesifo esosulelayo.[1] Amanye amachiza anokusetyenziselwa isifo se-visceral aquka i- liposomal amphotericin B,[3] umdibaniso we- pentavalent antimonials ne- paromomycin,[3] ne-miltefosine.[4] Kwisifo se-cutaneous, ingasebenza i-paromomycin, i- fluconazole, okanye i-pentamidine.[5]

Ngabantu abamalunga nezigidi ezili-12 abosulelekileyo kungoku nje [6] kumazwe athile angama-98.[2] Ziimeko ezintsha ezimalunga nezigidi ezi-2 [2] kwaye kwenzeka ukufa okuphakathi kwamawaka angama-20 nama-50 ngonyaka ngamnye.[1][7] Ngabantu abamalunga nezigidi ezingama-200 abaseAsiya, eAfrika, eMzantsi nakuMbindi weMelika, nakumazantsi eYurophu abahlala kwiindawo apho sixhaphake khona esi sifo.[2][8] I-World Health Organization ifumene izaphulelo kwamanye amachiza okusinyanga esi sifo.[2] Esi sifo sinokwenzeka nakuthotho lwezinye izilwanana, ukuquka ii-izinja kunye ne-zikrekrethis.[1]

Imithombo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Leishmaniasis Fact sheet N°375". World Health Organization. January 2014. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Barrett, MP; Croft, SL (2012) "Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis." British medical bulletin 104: 175–96 PMC 3530408 PMID 23137768 doi:10.1093/bmb/lds031 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sundar, S; Chakravarty, J (Jan 2013) "Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy." Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 14 (1): 53–63 PMID 23256501 doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.755515 
  4. Dorlo, TP; Balasegaram, M; Beijnen, JH; de Vries, PJ (Nov 2012) "Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis." The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 67 (11): 2576–97 PMID 22833634 doi:10.1093/jac/dks275 
  5. Minodier, P; Parola, P (May 2007) "Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment." Travel medicine and infectious disease 5 (3): 150–8 PMID 17448941 doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.09.004 
  6. "Leishmaniasis Magnitude of the problem". World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/burden/magnitude/burden_magnitude/en/index.html. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  7. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012) "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010." Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128 PMID 23245604 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0 
  8. Ejazi, SA; Ali, N (Jan 2013) "Developments in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during the last decade and future prospects." Expert review of anti-infective therapy 11 (1): 79–98 PMID 23428104 doi:10.1586/eri.12.148