Izifundo zokukhulisa nokuphuhlisa isizwe

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I-Developmental studies sisifundo sokukhulisa nokuphuhlisa esilisebe le-multidisciplinary ye-social science. Ezi zifundo zijongene nokukhulisa kwanokuphuhlisa zifumaneka kwinqanaba le-Master's degree kwiiyunivethi eziliqela, ngeli lixa zingaxhaphakanga kuyaphi kwinqanaba le-undergraduate degree. ukususela euqaleni kweminyaka yee-1990s, kwaye besisoloko sisesona sifundo kufundiswe ngaso ngokubanzi kwaza kwaqhutywa kuso ezophando kwi-third world nakumazwe anembali yobukomanisi, amazwe afana  ne-UK, apho isifundo se-development studies sisuka khona.[1] Abafundi be-development studies bavamise ukukhetha ii-careers zabo kwii-international organisations ezifana ne-United Nations, i-World Bank, i-Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), i-private sector development consultancy firms, i-Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) bodies kunye namaziko ezophando. 

Ii-bhodi ezi-Professional[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Amaqela eebhodi ezi-professional kwi-Development Studies afumaneke kulo lonke ihlabathi jekelele:[2]

  • EYurophu: Iqumrhu le-European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI)
  • E-Latin America: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO)
  • E-Asia: Asian Political and International Studies Association (APISA)
  • E-Africa: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) and Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA)
  • E-Arabic world: Arab Institutes and Centers for Economic and Social Development Research (AICARDES)

Ewonke la mabhunga aphantsi kwephiko lombutho i-Inter-regional Coordinating Committee of Development Associations (ICCDA). E-UK nase-Ireland, iqumrhu le-development Studies lingowona mthombo mkhulu wolwazi lophando nowofundiswa nokufunda banzi kwi-development studies. Umsebenzi walo kukuxhumanisa nokunyusela okanye ukuphakamisa abo basebenzela ukuphuhlisa nokukhulisa i-development research.

Ii-Disciplines (izifundo) ze-development studies[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Imibandela ye-Development (yokukhulisa nokuphuhlisa) iquka oku kulandelayo: 

Imbali[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukungxamiseka nokuxheshwa kwe-development studies ukuze ibe yi-academic discipline  kwihafu yesibini yamashumi amabini enkulungwane yeminyaka, yinto ebekufaneleke ukuba sele ikho nanjengoko kusiya kusanda ukuphawula ngalo mbono wezoqoqosho kwi-third world emva kwe-decolonisation. Ixesha lesaquphe emva kwemfazwe, i-development economics, isebe le-economics, lintshule kwizifundo zangaphambili ezaziqhutywa nge-colonial economics. Ngeminyaka yoo-1960, ukwanda kwenani leengcali zophuhliso loqoqosho labonakalisa okokuba i-economics iyodwa ayinakujongana ngokupheleleyo nemiba efana nopolitiko olunamandla kunye nemfundo ebekelwe ukuxhasa.[3] I-Development studies yavela ngenxa yoku, ukuqala kwayo yayijolise ekudibaniseni imibono ye-zopolitiko neyezoqoqosho. Ukusukela ngoko, ibe sisifundo esiluhlobo lwe-inter-  and multi-disciplinary, sisisifundo esididiyelwe ngeentlobo-ntlobo ze-social scientific fields.[4] Kutsha nje kule minyaka igqithileyo ukubaluleka kwe-political economy analysis,  ukusetyenziswa kwe-analytical techniques ze-economic, ukuhlola nokucacisa imiba yezopolitiko neyasekuhlaleni,  isenokuphakamisa okanye  yehlise ukukhula okanye uphuhliso kuyinto esuke yathatha unyawo ngokuthi inwenwele ngakumbi njengendlela yokucacisa impumelelo okanye ukuphanza  kweenkqubo zokwakha ngokutsha.  Ixesha lophuhliso lanamhlanje lusoloko livamise ukukholelwa ngokuqala ngentetho ye-inauguration kaHarry S. Truman ngo-1949. Kwinqaku lesine entethweni yakhe, ebhekisa kwi-Latin America nakwamanye amazwe ahlwempuzekileyo, waathi "okokuqala ezimbalini, ubuntu bunolwazi kubo kwanesakhono sokhulula aba bantu kwintlupheko abakuyo.".[5] Kodwa i-development studies okokoko yabeka umdla wayo kumava esiwafumene kwizifundo zamandulo ezazibanjwa e-Western countries. Kutsha nje, ukungxamiseka kwe-human security – indlela entsha yokwazisa abantu ukuze baziqonde bathethe nokuthetha ngezoyikiso ezichaphazela ukhuseleko lwehlabathi – ikhokhelele ekubeni kukhula kangakanani na ukuqonda ubudlelwane phakathi kokhuseleko nophuhliso.  Ukhuseleko loluntu luthi ukungalingani nokungakhuseleki kwisizwe okanye kwingingqi enye kuneziphumo kukhuseleko lwehlabathi  kwaye kusemdleni wazo zonke izizwe ukuchophela imibandela engunobangela yophuhliso. Obu budlelwane bungezifundo zokhuseleko loluntu bungumzekelo omnye kwemininzi kuhlobo lwe-interdisciplinary.

Ingxoxo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Jonga nalapha[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Okunye okunokufundwa ngale nyewe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. Kothari, U. (ed), A Radical History of Development Studies: Individuals, Institutions and Ideologies – but see The Journal of Peasant Studies 34/1 (2007) for an alternative view.
  2. About ICCDA
  3. Kothari, U. (ed), A Radical History of Development Studies: Individuals, Institutions and Ideologies
  4. Abbott, Lewis F. (2003) Theories of Industrial Modernization and Enterprise Development: A Review.
  5. Rist, G., The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith