Izifo ezidaleka emoyeni

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Isifo esidaleka emoyeni siso nasiphi na isifo esibangelwa ziintsholongwane ezibhabha okanye ezihlala emoyeni nakwi zinto ezibhabhayo ixeshana.[1] Izifo ezi loluhlobo uyakufumanisa ukuba zifumaneka kwizilwanyana kunye nasebantwini. Ezintsholongwane zizifo ngezifo ezosulela ngokuphefumla, ukuthetha, ukukhohlela, ukuthimla, ukufafazwa kwezinto ezingamanzi, kunye nayiphi na into ebangela kushiyeke izinto ezibhabhayo emoyeni.

Amaxesha amaninzi izifo ezifumaneka emoyeni zibangela ukurhawuzelela okanye izilonda kwiimpumlo, umqala kunye nemiphunga, kubange ukukhohlela oko, umqala obuhlungu, kunye nezinye iimpawu ezibonakala kumzimba wonke.

Izifo ezininzi ezixhaphakileyo ekuqwalaseleka ukuba zosuleleka ngokuhlala emoyeni ziquka ezi zilandelayo, kodwa zibe zingaphelelanga apha: coronavirus, measles morbillivirus, chickenpox virus;[2] Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza virus, enterovirus, kunye ne-norovirus.[3] Ezi zifo ziye zifune ukuba umntu ahlale eyedwa angadibani nabanye ngexesha lokunyangwa.

Amagqabantshintshi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Izifo ezidaleka emoyeni zibangelwa kukuhamba-hamba nokubhabha kweentsholongwane emoyeni. Unobangela wazo ke kukosuleleka kwezinto ngezinto, ukususela kwiincindi zomzimba zabantu nezilwanyana, okanye kwinkunkuma. Ezintsholongwane ziye zande ngokuba zihlale kuthuli okanye emoyeni othi abhabhe lee na lee ixesha elide. Umzekelo, ukuthimla kuhamba umgama omde, omlinganiso ubukhulu ngange bhasi[4], onothi ubangele kusuleleke isininzi sabantu.

Ukuphefumla umoya oneentsholongwane kungabangela izilonda okanye ukurhawuzelela, kwaye kuchaphazele nendlela yokuphefumla komntu. Izifo ezidaleka emoyeni aziquki iimeko ezibangelwa lungcoliseko komhlaba, kodwa ungcoliseko komhlaba kunayo indima enkulu okuyidlalayo ukwandisa izifo ezifana nesi sesifuba. Ungcoliseko komhlaba kunefuthe kwindlela ethi imiphunga isebenze ngayo.[5]

Izifo ezidaleka emoyeni zinako ukosulela nezilwanyana. Umzekelo, intsholongwane ekuthiwa yiNewcastle ukubizwa, sisifo esichaphazela iintlobo ezohlukileyo zeenkukhu zasemakhaya ilizwe jikelele, esosuleleka ngokungcoliseka komoya.[6]

Ukosuleleka[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Usulelo lwezi zifo kwenzeka xa athe umntu ophilileyo waphefumla umoya ekufumaniseka ugcwele ziintsholongwane, okanye xa umoya omdaka uthe wangena emehlweni, empumlweni, okanye emlonyeni. Akunyanzelekanga ukuba ude udibane buso ngobuso nomntu onaso esi sifo ukuze wosuleleke kuba sihlala kwaye sibhabha emoyeni. Ubushushu nokufudumala kwangaphakathi endlini kunye nangaphandle bunendima obuyidlalayo ekuhambiseni izifo ezidaleka emoyeni. Eminye imiba ebangela ukwanda nokuhamba-hamba kwezi zifo ezidaleka emoyeni yimvula, umoya, ubumdaka bendawo kunye nokuziphatha kakubi kwabantu.

Ukuthintela[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ezinye iindlela zokuzithintela kwezi zifo zidaleka emoyeni kuquka amayeza afana nezitofo, ukunxiba isifonyo esogquma umlomo ne nempumlo, kunye nokuphepha wonke ubani ekufumaniseka ukuba unaso esi sifo.[7] Xa uthe wadibana kunye nomntu onaso esinye sezi zifo zidaleka emoyeni akuthethi ukuba sele wasulelekile waze wanaso nawe, kuba ukusuleleka kwezifo eziloluhlobo kuxhomekeke empilweni nasemandleni omntu ngamnye, kunye nokuba loondawo athe wakuyo umntu ichaphazeleke kangakanani na.[8] Izibulala-ntsholongwane zingasetyenziswa ukuzikhusela kwizifo ezifumaneka emoyeni ezifana nePneumonic plague.[9] Lingcali zonyango zicebisa ucoceko kunye nokuhlala nganye-nganye ekunciphiseni izinga lokosuleleka ngezi zifo.[10] Ukuncedisa ukwehlisa amathuba okusuleleka kucetyiswa ukuba wonke ubani enze oku kulandelayo:

  • Hlalela kude kunabantu abanazo ezi zifo.
  • Nxiba isifonyo xa usendaweni kawonke-wonke.
  • Gquma umlomo wakho xa ukhohlela okanye uthimla.
  • Hlamba izandla zakho ngocoselelo ngawo onke amaxesha.

Sukubamba ubuso bakho okanye abanye abantu ngezandla ezimdaka.[11]

References[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. "2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings" (PDF). CDC. p. 19. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Airborne transmission occurs by dissemination of either airborne droplet nuclei or small particles in the respirable size range containing infectious agents that remain infective over time and distance
  2. Pica N, Bouvier NM (2012). "Environmental Factors Affecting the Transmission of Respiratory Viruses". Curr Opin Virol. 2 (1): 90–5. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2011.12.003. PMC 3311988. PMID 22440971.
  3. 497–507. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.487.177. doi:10.1017/s0953756204001777. PMID 15912938.
  4. https://www.chicagotribune.com/opinion/ct-xpm-2014-04-19-ct-sneeze-germs-edit-20140419-story.html
  5. "Airborne diseases". Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  6. Mitchell, Bailey W.; King, Daniel J. (October–December 1994). "Effect of Negative Air Ionization on Airborne Transmission of Newcastle Disease Virus". Avian Diseases. 38 (4): 725–732. doi:10.2307/1592107. JSTOR 1592107.
  7. Laura Ester Ziady; Nico Small (2006). Prevent and Control Infection: Application Made Easy. Juta and Company Ltd. pp. 119–120. ISBN 9780702167904. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  8. Ibid
  9. "Redirect - Vaccines: VPD-VAC/VPD menu page". 7 February 2019.
  10. Glass RJ, Glass LM, Beyeler WE, Min HJ (November 2006). "Targeted social distancing design for pandemic influenza". Emerging Infect. Dis. 12 (11): 1671–81. doi:10.3201/eid1211.060255. PMC 3372334. PMID 17283616.
  11. Pietrangelo Ann. What Are Airborne Diseases? Healthline 19 March 2020. https://www.healthline.com/health/airborne-diseases. Accessed on 13 April 2020