Ithoyilethi yomngxuma

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Umzobo wethoyilethi yomngxuma elula enendawo yokuhlala nekhusi.[1]

Ithoyilethi yomngxuma' luhlobo [lwethoyilethi]] oluqokelela ilindle lomntu kumngxuma osemhlabeni. Akusetyenziswa manzi okanye kusetyenziswe ilitha enye ukuya kwezimbini xa kugungxulwa kule thoyilethi yomngxuma.[2] Xa zakhiwe yaye zigcinwe kakuhle zinokukunciphisa ukunwenwa kwezifo ngokunciphisa umthamo welindle lomntu kokusingqongileyo ekubeni ilindle lihlale kwindawo evulekileyo.[3][4] Oku kunciphisa ukunwenwa kweentsholongwane phakathi kwelindle nokutya okubangelwa ziimpukane.[3] Ezi ntsholongwane zingoonobangela abaphambili besifo sotyatyazo esosulelayo nezifo ezibangelwa ziintshulube esiswini.[4] Isifo sotyatyazo esosulelayo siye saphumela ekufeni kwabantu abamalunga nezigidi eziyi- 0.7 kubantwana abangaphantsi kweiminyaka emihlanu ubudala ngo-2011 yaye abazizigidi ezyi-250 baye baphoswa kukuya esikolweni.[4][5] Iithoyilethi zomngxuma ziyeyona ndlela ingabizi kangako yokubhekelisa ilindle ebantwaini.[3]

Ngokuqhelekileyo ithoyilethi yomngxuma iba neenxalenye ezintathu ezibalulekileyo: umngxuma osemhlabeni, islebhu okanye umgangatho onomngxuma omncinci, kunye nekhusi.[2] Lo mngxuma udla ngokuba ziimitha eziyi-3 ubuncinane (10 iinyawo) ubunzulu kunye ne-1 m (3.2 iinyawo) ububanzi.[2] IWorld Health Organization incomela ukuba zakhiwe kumgama ofanelekileyo ukusuka endlini kulungelelaniswa umba wokufikeleleka lula kunye nomba wevumba.[3] Umgama ukusuka kumanzi angaphantsi komhlaba namanzi angaphezu komhlaba ufanele ube mkhulu kangangoko kunokwenzeka ukunciphisa ingozi yokhukuliseko. Umngxuma okwislebhu awufanele ube mkhulu kuneesentimitha eziyi-25 (9.8 intshi) ukuthintela ukuwela kwabantwana kuwo. Ukukhanya kumele kuthintelwe kungangeni kulo mngxuma ukuze kungangeni zimpukane. Oku kunokufuna ukuba kusetyenziswe isiciko ukuze kugqunywe umngxuma xa ungasetyenziswa.[3] Xa umngxuma uzala ufikelela kwiimitha eziyi-0.5 (1.6 iinyawo) ukuya phezulu, ufanele uphungulwe okanye kwakhiwe umngxuma omtsha kuze kuthuthelwe ikhusi kwindawo entsha okanye liphinde lakhiwe.[6] Ukulawulwa kwelindle elikhutshwa emngxumeni kunzima. kukho iingozi kokusingqongileyo nakwimpilo.

Ithoyilethi yomngxuma eqhelekileyo inokuphuculwa ngeendlela ezininzi. Enye iquka ukufakelwa kombhobho okhupha umoya osuka emngxumeni oya ngaphezu kwethoyilethi. Oku kuphucula ukuhamba komoya kuze kunciphise ivumba lale thoyilethi. Kanti inokunciphisa iimpukane xa umphezulu walo mbhobho ugqunywe ngesefu (edla ngokwenziwa ngefayibhaglasi). Kwezi thoyilethi akufuneki kusetyenziswe isiciko ukuze kugqunywe umngxuma.[6] Ezinye iindlela ezinokuphuculwa ngazo ziquka umgangatho owakhiwe waneedreyini zamanzi eziya emngxumeni nokuqiniswa kwenxalenye ephezulu yomngxuma ngezitena okanye izangqa zesamente ukuphucula ukomelela.[2][6]

Ukususela ngo-2013 iithoyilethi zomngxuma bezisetyenziswa ngabantu abaqikelelwa kwi-1.77 bhiliyoni.[7] Oku ubukhulu becala kwenzeka kumazwe asakhasayo kwakunye nasemaphandleni nakwimimandla esentlango. Ngo-2011 abantu abamalunga ne- 2.5 bhiliyoni bebengenazo iithoyiethi ezifanelekileyo yaye abaybhiliyoni enye baye babhenela ekuzithumeni kwiindawo ezivulekileyo kufutshane nalapho bahlala khona.[8] KumaZantsi Asia kunye neAfrika EkuMazantsi eSahara ngabona bangakwaziyo ukuba neethoyilethi.[8] Kumazwe asakhasayo ixabiso lethoyilethi eqhelekileyo yomngxuma liphakathi kwe-25 ne-60 USD.[9] Iindleko eziqhubekayo zokuyilondoloza ziphakathi kwe-1.5 ne-4 USD mntu ngamnye ngonyaka zinto ezo zingasoloko zithathelwa ngqalelo.[10] Kwezinye iinxalenye zamaphandle aseIndiya iphulo le "No Toilet, No Bride" liye lasetyenziselwa ukukhuthaza iithoyilethi ngokukhuthaza amabhinqa ukuba angavumi ukutshata namadoda angenazo iithoyilethi.[11][12]

Iimbekiselo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. WEDC izilebhu zethoyilethi: isikhokelo kunonjineli, WEDC Guide 005 p. 22 ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6  Unknown parameter |umpapashi= ignored (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.) Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) 2014 ISBN 9783906484570  Unknown parameter |umbhali= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Ithoyilethi yomngxuma elula (iphepha lezibakala 3.4)". 1996. http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Js13461e/3.4.html. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). http://sanitationdrive2015.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/DSG_Sanitation_Fast-Facts_final.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H et al. (Apr 20, 2013) Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16 PMID 23582727 doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6  Unknown parameter |umxholo= ignored (help);
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 François Brikké (2003) Ukudibanisa ukhetho lobugcisa nokusebenza nokulondoloza ngokuphathelele amanzi nogutyulo lwendawo p. 108 ISBN 9241562153  Unknown parameter |umpapashi= ignored (help)
  7. {bhekisela kwincwadi|last1=Graham|first1=JP|last2=Polizzotto|first2=ML|title=Iithoyilethi zongxuma negalelo lazo kumgangatho wamanzi angaphantsi komhlaba: uhlolo oluchuliweyo.|journal=Imbono ngempilo yokusingqongileyo|date=May 2013|volume=121|issue=5|pages=521–30|pmid=23518813|doi=10.1289/ehp.1206028}}
  8. 8.0 8.1 Inkqubela kugutyulo namanzi okusela - 2014 update. (pdf) WHO 2014 pp. 16–20 ISBN 9789241507240 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H. (2011) Amanzi nezifo ezinxulumene nogutyulo nemicelimngeni yokusingqongileyo, ungenelelo namanyathelo okhuseleko Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell p. 25 ISBN 9781118148600 
  10. Ugutyulo Nempilo eAfrika Simi Phi? Intl Water Assn 2013 p. 161 ISBN 9781780405414 
  11. Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits Cambridge University Press 2013 p. 623 ISBN 9781107435247 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do"". Blog of World Bank. http://blogs.worldbank.org/impactevaluations/haryanas-scarce-women-tell-potential-suitors-no-loo-no-i-do-guest-post-by-yaniv-stopnitzky. Retrieved 17 November 2014.