Isifo sephepha

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Iphulo lesebe lezempilo ngeminyaka yoo-1920 ngeenzame zokunqanda ukwanda kwesifo sephepha.

Isifo sephepha,okanyeiTB ngokufutshane, sisifo esosulelayo esibangelwa yintsholonngwane. Besisaya kubizwa njengesifo esingubhubhane.

Isifo sephepha sibangelwa ziintlobo ezininzi zeimycobacteria, nesaziwa njengesifosephepha esiyi Mycobacterium.[1] Esi sifo sihlasela imiphunga, kodwa sisenokuhlasela namanye amalungu omzimba. Le ntsholongwane ihamba ngomoya ize sasazeke ngokusuka komnye umntu iye komnye, ngamanye amazwi iyosulela. Oku kwenzeka xa umntu onesi sifo ekhohlela, ethimla, okanye etsica/ethufa. [2] Phakathi kwabantu abahlanu nabalishumi babonakalisa iimpawu zesi sifo, kwikhulu ngalinye labantu abosulelekileyo esi sifo. [3] Kwaba bantu, esi sifo kuthiwa siyaphila. Isifo sephepha sibulala abantu abangaphezulu kwesiqingatha. Aba ke ngabantu abathi bosulelekile nje babe bengekho phantsi konyango.

ulwazi olufunyenweyo nonyango[tshintsha | edit source]

Ukuvalwa kwesiko lwesifo sephepha. Izicuku ezibonakala ngathi lugwebu kukukhula kwezi ntsholongwane.

Ukubonwa kweTB ephilayo emntwini kuxhomekeke kwiradiology esithi ngugesi ngesiXhosa. Oogqirha bajonga isifuba somntu kwiX-ray eyaziwa ngokuba ngugesi ngesiXhosa. Kutsho kuthiwe umntu uye egesini. Ngaphezu koko, bayawuhlola umzimba bejonga okokuba unamanzi kangakanani na. La manzi aneemicrobe kuwo, ezikhula kwiicell cultures. Iicell cultures zona ziyajongwa zogocwagocwe kujongwa okokuba akosulelekanga ngeTb na umntu.

Ukuba isigulana sineTB kodwa sibe singabonakalisi zimpawu zayo, intsholongwane kuthiwa 'ikhona kodwa ayibonakali'. Oogqirha basebenzisa isikhumba uvavanyo ekuthiwa yi-Mantoux test, ukufumana iTB ethi ikho nje ibe ingabonakali. Basoloko behlola negazi.

Lukhona ugonyo oluthi lwenziwe ukulwa iindlela ezithile zesifo sephepha. Kuthiwa lugonyo lwebacillus Calmette–Guérin.

Isifo sephepha sasisoloko sinyangwa lula ngepilisi ezibulala nezinyanga iintsholongwane. Kodwa ke ngoku intsholongwane inenkani ayishukunyiswa zezi pilisi. Le nkani ke yenza okokuba kubenzima ukunyanga esi sifo. Iintlobo ezininzi zezi pilisi kufuneka zisetyenziswe sisigulana ixesha elide. Kukho olunye uhlobo lwesifo sephepha olunenkani kakhulu kuzo zonke iziyobisi ezikhoyo.

Uqikelelo[tshintsha | edit source]

imephu yehlabathi apho kukho isub-Saharan Africa kwiindawo ezimabala-bala eqanda, ebonakalisa uqikelelo lobukho besi sifo obungama-300 kubantu abangama-100,000, kunye nase-U.S., eKhanada, Australia, kunye naseMantla eYurophu kwimibala eluhlaza kwesibhaka-bhaka, ibonakalisa ubukho besi sifo obumalunga ne-10 kubantu abangama-100,000. I-Asia iqanda ngombala kodwa ayiqaqambanga kangako, iphawula ubukho besi sifo obumalunga nama- 200 kubantu abangama-100,000 ngokomlinganiselo. IMelika eseNtshona inombala oqanda bumdaka.
Le mephu yehlabathi ibonakalisa ubukho besi sifo seTB, kubantu abangama-100.000, kusukela ngo-2007. Amazwe ahlaselwe kakhulu esi sifo abonakaliswe ngombala oqanda, kumazwe apho uhlaselo lumbalwa kubonakaliswe ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhaka-bhaka. Imiba emininzi yaashicilelwa eSub-Saharan Africa, ushicilelo oluninzi lweenzeka naseAsia.[4]

Iingcali zikholelwa ekubeni isiqingatha sesithathu kuluntu lwehlabathi losulelwe ngesi sifo seM. tuberculosis.[5] Usulelo olutsha lwenzeka kumntu ngamnye ngomzuzwana nje. [5] Ngo-2007, zizigidi ezingamalunga ne-13.7 zabantu ababambeke kakhulu sesi sifo kwihlabathi lonke jikelele. [6] Ngo-2010, bamalunga ne-8.8 million abantu abasaqalwa sesi sifo, kanti ke phantse ngama-1.5 million abantu abathe basutywa kukufa ngenxa yesi sifo, uninzi lwabo lukumazwe asakhasayo .[7] Inani leziganeko zesifo sephepha belisoloko lisehla okokoko kwango-2006, yaza nemitsha imibandela ngesi sifo yehla ukususela ngo-2002.[7]

Isifo sephepha asenzeki ngesantya esinye kwihlabathi. Zingamashumi asibhozo iiphesenti zoluntu kumazwe aseAsia naseAfrika abathe bahlolwa baze bafunyaniswa enaso esi sifo, kodwa zintlanu ukuya kwishumi iiphesenti kumazwe aseMelika. [1] Abantu bahlala befumana isifo sephepha ngenxa yokuwa kwenjini ezilawula imizimba yabo. Abantu abaninzi abaphila neHIV kunye neAIDS bangasifumana isifo sephepha. [8]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN (2007) Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.) Saunders Elsevier pp. 516–522 ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1 
  2. Konstantinos A (2010) "Testing for tuberculosis" Australian Prescriber 33 (1): 12–18 
  3. al.], edited by Peter G. Gibson ; section editors, Michael Abramson ... [et (2005) Evidence-based respiratory medicine (1. publ. ed.) Oxford: Blackwell p. 321 ISBN 978-0-7279-1605-1 
  4. World Health Organization (2009) "The Stop TB Strategy, case reports, treatment outcomes and estimates of TB burden" Global tuberculosis control: epidemiology, strategy, financing pp. 187–300 ISBN 978-92-4-156380-2 retrieved 14 November 2009 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104". World Health Organization. November 2010. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/index.html. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  6. World Health Organization (2009) "Epidemiology" Global tuberculosis control: epidemiology, strategy, financing pp. 6–33 ISBN 978-92-4-156380-2 retrieved 12 November 2009 
  7. 7.0 7.1 World Health Organization (2011). "The sixteenth global report on tuberculosis". http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2011/gtbr11_executive_summary.pdf.
  8. Lawn, SD; Zumla, AI (2 July 2011) "Tuberculosis" Lancet 378 (9785): 57–72 PMID 21420161 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3