IsiSwazi

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Ulwimi lwesiSwazi okanye isiSwati lulwimi lwesiNtu lweqela lesiNguni elithethwa eSwatini naseMzantsi Afrika ngamaSwati. Inani lezithethi liqikelelwa ukuba likwingingqi ye-2.4 yezigidi. Olu lwimi lufundiswa eSwatini nakwizikolo ezithile zaseMzantsi Afrika eMpumalanga, ngakumbi iindawo ezazisakuba yiKaNgwane. IsiSwati lulwimi olusemthethweni lwase-Eswatini (kunye nesiNgesi), kwaye sesinye seelwimi ezilishumi elinanye ezisemthethweni eMzantsi Afrika.

Igama elisemthethweni lithi "siSwati" phakathi kwezithethi zomthonyama; ngesiNgesi, isiZulu, isiNdebele okanye isiXhosa ingabizwa ngokuba yiSwazi. IsiSwati sihlobene kakhulu nezinye iilwimi zesiTekela, njengesiPhuthi kunye noMntla weTransvaal (iSumayela) Ndebele, kodwa sikwasondelelene kakhulu neelwimi zesiZunda: isiZulu, isiNdebele saseMzantsi, isiNdebele saseMntla, nesiXhosa.

Iilwimi zezizwana[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

IsiSwati esithethwa e-Eswatini sinokwahlulwa sibe ziziyelelane ezine ezihambelana nemimandla emine yolawulo yelizwe: isiHhohho, isiLubombo, iManzini, neShiselweni.

IsiSwati sineentlobo ezimbini ubuncinci: umgangatho, umgangatho wodumo oluthethwa ikakhulu emantla, embindini nasemzantsi-ntshona welizwe, kunye nendidi engabekekanga kangako ethethwa kwenye indawo.

Kumazantsi akude, ngakumbi kwiidolophu ezifana neNhlangano neHlatikhulu, iindidi zolwimi ezithethwayo zichatshazelwa kakhulu sisiZulu. Uninzi lwamaSwazi (isininzi samaSwati, isinye isiSwati), kuquka nabo basemazantsi abathetha olu hlobo, abayithathi njengeSwazi 'efanelekileyo'. Le yinto ekunokuthiwa isiyelelane sesibini kweli lizwe. Inani elikhulu labantu abathetha isiSwazi eMzantsi Afrika (ingakumbi kwiphondo laseMpumalanga, naseSoweto) lithathwa ngabantu abathetha isiSwazi saseSwatini ukuba bathethe ulwimi olungekho semgangathweni.

Ngokungafaniyo nolunye uhlobo olusemazantsi e-Eswatini, udidi lwaseMpumalanga lubonakala lungachatshazelwa kangako siZulu, kwaye lubonwa lukufutshane neSwazi esisemgangathweni. Nangona kunjalo, olu hlobo lwaseMpumalanga lwahlulakala ngokwelizwi elahlukileyo, kunye neepateni zethowuni ezahlukileyo. Iipateni zelizwi (kunye neembono ezingekho sikweni 'zoxinzelelo') eMpumalanga Swazi zikholisa ukubonwa njengezingavisisaniyo kwindlebe yaseSwazini. Olu didi lwesiSwazi lwaseMzantsi Afrika luthathwa njengolubonakalisa impembelelo kwezinye iilwimi zaseMzantsi Afrika ezithethwa kufutshane neSwazi.

Uphawu lodidi oluqhelekileyo lwewonga lesiSwazi (esithethwa emantla nakumbindi we-Eswatini) sisimbo sasebukhosini sokucotha, nogxininiso olukhulu lokubiza, ekuthiwa kunemvakalelo 'emnandi' kwabo bayiphulaphuleyo.

Iiconsonants[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

I-Swazi aahlukanisi phakathi kweendawo zokuthetha ngokucofa kwayo. Ngamazinyo (njenge [ǀ]) okanye anokuba yi-alveolar (njenge [ǃ]). Nangona kunjalo, iyahlula iindlela ezintlanu okanye ezintandathu zokuthetha kunye nefowuni, kuquka i- tenuis , i- aspirated , i-aspirated, i-voiceed, i-breath voice, i-nasal, kunye ne-nasal ephefumulayo.