Iimaski zobuso ngexesha lobhubhane we-coronavirus ka-2019 ukuya ku-2020

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Iingcebiso zikarhulumente[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ukunxitywa kweemaski zobuso ngexesha lobhubhane we-coronavirus ka-2019 ukuya ku-2020 kuye kwafumana iingcebiso ezahlukeneyo kwii-arhente zezempilo zoluntu noorhulumente. Esi sihloko sibe yinto ekuxoxwa ngayo, ii-arhente zezempilo zoluntu kunye noorhulumente bengavumelani nomgaqo wehlabathi wokunxitywa kweemaski zobuso.

Isizathu[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ezinye zezizathu ezichazwe ngamagosa ezempilo aseTshayina ngokunxiba iimaski nangabantu abaphilayo zezi zilandelayo: [1]

  1. Usuleleko olu-asymptomatic (usuleleko oluvela kwabo bangabonisi zimpawu zakugula). Abantu abaninzi banokusuleleka ngaphandle kweempawu okanye kuphela ngeempawu ezingaxhomisi-mehlo.
  2. Ukungakwazi ukulandela ukuhlalelana qelele kwindawo zikawonke-wonke ezininzi ngalo lonke ixesha.
  3. Ukungaxhamli kweendleko zokungasebenzi (ukungakhuthazwa). Ukuba abantu abosulelekileyo ngabo kuphela abanxiba imaski, banokufumana inkuthazo embi yokwenza oko. Umntu owosulelweyo unokungafumani nto ilungileyo, kodwa uyakuthwala iindleko ezinje ngokuphazamiseka, iindleko zokuthenga kunye nokuba nokhetho.

Ugqirha weentsholongwane kwiDyunivesithi yaseLeeds obizwa ngokuba nguStephen Griffin uthi 'Ukunxiba imaski kungalinciphisa ithuba [lokuba] abantu bachukumise ubuso babo, kuba ngumthombo wosulelo ngaphandle kococeko lwezandla olufanelekileyo.''[2]

Uhlobo lweemaski[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Imaski yobuso yelaphu yimaski eyenziwe ngamalaphu aqhelekileyo enxitywa ngaphezulu komlomo kunye nempumlo, uninzi lwenziwe ngomqhaphu. Ngokungafaniyo neemaski zoogqirha zokuhlinza kunye neziphefumlisi, zona azikho phantsi kwemiqathango. Okwangoku kukho uphando oluncinci okanye isikhokelo ekusetyenzisweni kwazo njengenyathelo lokukhusela ekusasazeni isifo okanye ekungcoleni komoya.

Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza sisixhobo esinxibeka khululekileyo, esilahlwayo esithi sidale umqobo phakathi komlomo kunye nempumlo yalowo uyinxibayo kunye nezinto ezinokubangela ukungcoliseka kwindawo ezikuyo. Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza yenzelwe ukunceda ukuthintela amathontsi amakhulu amachaphaza, ukutshiza, okanye ukutshiza okukhulu okungaqulatha iintsholongwane kunye neebaktheriya ukuba inxitywe ngokufanelekileyo, ukuthintela ezi zinto ukuba zingafiki emlonyeni nakwimpumlo yalowo uyinxibileyo. Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza inokuthi incede ekunciphiseni ukubonakala kwamathe alowo uyinxibileyo kunye nokuphefumla komoya kwabanye. [3] Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza ayenzelwanga ukuhluza okanye ukuvimba amathontsana amancinci emoyeni anokusasazeka kukukhohlela, ukuthimla, okanye iinkqubo ezithile zonyango. Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza ayiboneleli ngokhuseleko olupheleleyo kwiintsholongwane kunye nezinye izinto ezingcolisayo ngenxa yokunxibeka okuthe tye phakathi komphezulu wemaski yobuso kunye nobuso. Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza yenziwe ngelaphu elingelilo elenziwe ngokusebenzisa inkqubo yokuntyibilikisa. [4] [5]

Imaski engu-N95 lilatshana lobuso elisisihluzi samasuntswana okuphefumla esidibana ne-N95 ongumlinganiselo wokucoca umoya wase Melika kwiZiko elijongene noKhuseleko kunye neMpilo yaBasebenzi. Ihluza ubuncinci beepesenti ezingama-95 amasuntswana omoya. Ingumzekelo kamatshini osisixhobo sokuphefumla, osinika ukhuselo kumasuntswana, kodwa hayi iigesi okanye umphunga.[6] Njengemaski kagqirha yokuhlinza, imaski engu-N95 yenziwa ngefabriki engatyibilikiyo ye-polypropylene.[7] [8] Imaski yobuso ehambelanayo esetyenziswa kwi-European Union yi-FFP2 respirator.[9] [10]

Iingcebiso zoMbutho wezeMpilo[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Imibutho yezempilo iye yacebisa ukuba abantu bagqume umlomo kunye nempumlo ngengqiniba egobileyo okanye nge-tissue xa bekhohlela okanye bethimla, balahle i-tissue kwangoko. [11] [12]

Imaski kagqirha yokuhlinza iyacetyiswa kwabo banokuba bosulelekile,[13] [14] [15] njengoko ukunxiba imaski kunokunciphisa umyinge kunye nokuhamba umgama kwamachaphaza aphuma emlonyeni athi asasazeke xa uthetha, uthimla, naxa ukhohlela.[16]

Iingcebiso zoMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Ingcebiso yoMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi kuluntu phantsi kwemeko ye-COVID-19 ixhasa ukusetyenziswa kweemaski kuphela phantsi kwale miqathango ilandelayo:[17]

  • Ukuba usempilweni, kuya kufuneka unxibe imaski kuphela ukuba ukhathalela umntu onesifo esosulelayo sika-2019-nCoV.
  • Nxiba imaski ukuba uyakhohlela okanye uyathimla.
  • Imaski isebenza ngcono xa isetyenziswa ngokudibanisa nokuhlamba rhoqo izandla ngesenithayiza enotywala yezandla okanye ngesepha kunye namanzi.
  • Ukuba unxiba imaski, kufuneka uyazi ukuba uyisebenzisa njani kwaye uyilahle njani ngokufanelekileyo.

Ukusetyenziswa kwemaski kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo yelizwe kunye nomda e-Afrika[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  • eBenin: Ukususela nge-8 ka-Epreli, abasemagunyeni e-Benin baqala ngokunyanzelisa kokunxitywa kweemaski zobuso ukunqanda i-coronavirus.[18]
  • eCameroon: USodolophu wesiXeko saseCameroon ubhengeze ukuba ukunxitywa kwemaski kuyanyanzeleka ukucothisa ukusasazeka kwe-coronavirus.[19]
  • eDemocratic Republic of Congo: Ukunxiba imaski ngoku kunyanzelekile kulo lonke ikomkhulu.[20]
  • e-Ethiopia: IBhunga laBaphathiswa lityikitye umthetho wokuba ukuxhawulana izandla makupheliswe kwaye kunyanzeliswe ukunxitywa kweemaski zobuso kwiindawo zikawonke-wonke.[21]
  • eGuinea: Umongameli wase-Guinea u-Alfa Conde uthathe isigqibo sokuba ukunxiba iimaski kunyanzelekile.[22]
  • eKenya: Ukunxiba imaski yobuso kunyanzelekile. Urhulumente wenze abantu baseKenya ukuba bahlole kabukhali ukungasondelelani koluntu okuthe kwangqineka njengenye yeendlela ezifanelekileyo zokuthintela umngcipheko wosulelo.[23]
  • eLiberia: Ukusuka nge 21-Epreli, kunyanzelekile ukuba unxibe imaski yobuso okanye ugqumathele esidlangalaleni.[24]
  • Morocco: Ukunxiba imaski yobuso kunyanzelekile.[25]

References[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. "Why healthy Chinese wearing face masks outdoors?". NHC.gov.cn. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020.
  2. "How to avoid touching your face so much". BBC News. 18 March 2020.
  3. Jump up to: 
a b "N95 Respirators and Surgical Masks (Face Masks)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. "Not Enough Face Masks Are Made In America To Deal With Coronavirus". NPR.org. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  5. "Chinese mask makers use loopholes to speed up regulatory approval". Financial Times. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  6. "Respirator Trusted-Source: Selection FAQs". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  7. Jump up to: 
a b c [[ |Zie, John]] (19 March 2020). "World Depends on China for Face Masks But Can Country Deliver?". Voice of America. no-break space character in |authorlink= at position 1 (help)
  8. Feng, Emily (16 March 2020). "COVID-19 Has Caused A Shortage Of Face Masks. But They're Surprisingly Hard To Make". NPR.
  9. "Comparison of FFP2, KN95, and N95 and Other Filtering Facepiece Respirator Classes" (PDF). 3M Technical Data Bulletin. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  10. "Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators: Crisis/Alternate Strategies". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  11. "Advice for public". World Health Organization. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  12. Home. "Novel Coronavirus". HPSC.ie. Health Protection Surveillance Centre of Ireland. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  13. "Severe Respiratory Disease associated with a Novel Infectious Agent". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  14. "Updates on Wuhan Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Local Situation". MoH.gov.sg. Ministry of Health of Singapore. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  15. Jump up to: 
a b c "Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in health care settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak". World Health Organization. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  16. "2019-nCoV: What the Public Should Do". US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  17. "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks". World Health Organization. World Health Organization. 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  18. Benin Police Enforce Mask Wearing In Bid To Stop Virus,Barron's, 8 April 2020.
  19. Cameroon City Makes Wearing Mask Mandatory in Fight Against Coronavirus,VOA News, 7 April 2020.
  20. Tasamba, James (19 April 2020). "Rwanda, DR Congo make mask wearing mandatory".
  21. Samuel, Gelila (12 April 2020). "Ethiopia Outlaws Handshakes, Obliges Masks in Public Places".
  22. Masilela, Brenda (14 April 2020). "Guinean president makes masks compulsory in bid to curb the spread of coronavirus".,IOL
  23. Muraya, Joseph (5 April 2020). "Kenya: Masks Now Mandatory in Public Places, Kenya Declares".,All Africa
  24. Senkpeni, Alpha Daffae (21 April 2020). "Will You Wear Mask? Liberia's Lawmakers Want Compulsory Wearing of 'Protective Device' In Public".,Front Page Africa
  25. Eljechtimi, Ahmed (6 April 2020). "Morocco makes face masks compulsory due to coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 11 April 2020.