Ukraine

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Ukraine (MFA Audio [ukrɑjinɑ] Inkcazelo ifayile) - kwilizwe baseMpuma Yurophu inxenye kuMbindi Yurophu, kumazantsi-ntshona yinxalenye East yaseYurophu Plain. Ummandla 603 628 km². Lizwe likhulu abo mmandla ubuxoki ngokupheleleyo eYurophu [6], eyesibini eYurophu, kunikwa eRashiya. Bufana imida kunye Belarus emantla, ePoland, Slovakia kunye Hungary - ngasentshona, Romania kunye Moldova - emazantsi-ntshona, eRashiya ngasempuma kunye mpuma. Emzantsi mpuma yi-Black and Azov ziilwandle. Okwangoku in Ukraine eyaziwa ityala zakudala yeenkcubeko ezininzi ukususela Stone Age - Mousterian, hrebenykivskoyi, kukretskoyi, Tripoli, serednostohivskoyi, yamnoyi, ukulwa nezamazembe, njl chornoliska. Kumaxesha amandulo kummandla Ukraine ukuba imfundo nabaphantsi oluntu, abemi Greek sewulungile wona, kodwa isiqalo sisizwe Ukrainian kunye neenkcubeko Slavic ingqalelo Kievan Rus 9-13 ubudala [7]. Emva Mongol ekuhlaselweni yobukumkani Rus waba yindlalifa 13-14 ubudala [7]. Kuye kwathathwa eselumelwaneni Lithuania and Poland emanyeneyo ngenkulungwane ye-16 Commonwealth Federation. Formation isizwe namhlanje Ukrainian iqina Liberation War of 1648-1657 phantsi kobunkokheli Bogdan Khmelnitsky ngokuchasene Poland [7] [8]. Isiphumo yaba ukusekwa lemfazwe kwi Dnieper Cossack karhulumente. Ngokuba nembambano emva 1667 yaye yahlulwa phakathi ePoland mpangele. Ngenkulungwane ye-18, emva wokujoyina impangele amaninzi kumazwe Ukrainian, ukuzimela basekuhlaleni ngcembe wabubhangisa urhulumente tsarist. Ngexesha revolution Ukrainian kwenkulungwane yama-20 kwi kummandla Ukraine bajamelana inani uhlanga ithi: Ukrainian National Republic, State Ukrainian, Western Peoples Republic of Kuban yaBantu [9] Republic nabanye. Kodwa ngenxa ngokoyiswa omzabalazo wenkululeko Ukrainian iminyaka 1917-1921 kunye iimfazwe ezininzi, ezi States abamelwane ngomdla yiSoviet Russia, iiPolish Republic, ubukumkani Romania kunye laseCzechoslovak Republic. Kummandla Russian yasekwa yamaBolshevik Ukrainian yiSoviet Socialist Republic (SSR), nto leyo 1922 yaba yinxalenye eSoviet Union. Ngexesha leMfazwe yeSibini yeHlabathi eU.SSR yawela yasentshona Ukraine and Bucak kwaye 1954 - NaseCrimea. Imeko yanamhlanje Ukraine wambumba 24 Agasti 1991 ukususela eU.SSR ngowe ngokuwa yiSoviet Union, neziza ukuthanda abantu Ukraine ngomhla we-1 Disemba 1991. EUkraine - umbuso. Oku iqulathe kwimimandla 24, eCrimea nezixeko amabini iwonga: Uhambo - eyinkunzi sixeko sikhulu, yaye Sevastopol. Ukraine yiriphabliki yasepalamente-kamongameli. Igunya liphezulu Urhulumente iBhunga Ephakamileyo Ukraine, njengentloko yombuso - Mongameli Ukraine. Abemi Ukraine ohlala kwindawo yesibhozo eYurophu. Ngokutsho kubalo, eyayiqhutyelwa 2001 Ukraine ngaphezu kwezigidi 48,4 abantu. Kwezi, 77,8% abo Ukrainian, 17.3% - Russian. Abemi ezidolophini yi 67,2%. Ulwimi lwaseburhulumenteni Ukraine Ukrainian. Ngenxa yoko kilkasotlitnoho l '[10] kwimimandla yasempumalanga kunye esemazantsi kolwimi Russian. Uninzi lwabantu bobabo eMpuma Rite amaKristu - Orthodox nesiGrike amaKatolika. Okunye iinkonzo: amaRoma Katolika, kobuProtestanti, Islam. EUkraine - lizwe kwimizi-kwezolimo ubukho kwemveliso zemathiriyeli ekrwada. Le yenye abathumela aphambili ezinye iimveliso zezolimo kunye nokutya. uqoqosho lwesizwe abantu kuquka amashishini ezifana: zezimbiwa (amalahle, i-oyile, igesi, intsimbi kunye manganese ore), ezinye ubunjineli, ezingathabathekiyo kunye nonferrous, Ukraine na ungumlimi enamandla ombane. Ukuveliswa izithuthi lokwazisa, Hewana kunye nezixhobo zokuhlola isithuba. Ukraine ungumlimi enkulu yezixhobo - amatanki, moya yezothutho emkhosini, emhlabeni- anti-moya, izixhobo zokukhanyisa. Ukraine ngomnye wamalungu aseka yeZizwe eziManyeneyo [11] kwaye lilungu lemibutho ngamazwe ngaphezu amane.