IsiNgesi

From Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Template:Infobox language

Amazwe aphawulwe ngebala elubuhlaza bawo bungqindilili ngamazwe eluthethwa khona isingesi ubukhulu becala, kwaye kumazwe apho isiNgesi sibaluleke kakhulu aphawulwe ngombala oluhlaza nobuphatsha kunalo wokuqala.

isiNgesi lulwimi lwaseNtshona-Jamani olwathethwa okokuqala yiAnglo-Saxon eNgilani ngeminyaka yokuqala yeMiddle Ages. Sithetha nje lelona lwimi lusetyenziswa kakhulu kwihlabathi jikelele. [1]

Luthethwa kumazwe ngamazwe ehlabathi lonke jikelele. Lulwimi lokuqala lwaseUnited Kingdom, eUnited States, eCanada, eAustralia, eIreland, eNew Zealand namazwe amaninzi eCaribbean. Bamalunga na-375 ezigidi abantu abasithetha isingesi nje ngolwimi lweenkobe (abantu abantetho yabo isisiNgesi),[2] nto leyo esibeka kwindawo yesibini isiNgesi njengolona lwimi luthethwayo kwihlabathi. Bamalunga nama-220 ezigidi zabanye abantu abasithetha njengolwimi olongezelelwa kwiilwimi zabo zeenkobe, kwaye kusekho izigidi-gidi zabantu abasafunda ukusithetha.

Sitshintshile ke isiNgesi, kunjalo nje besisoloko sitshintshwa ngenxa yefuthe lezinye iilwimi. [3] Kuba phantse ama-60% entetho isuka kwisiLatini, maxa wambi isiNgesi sithathwa ngokuba lolona lwimi lunesiLatini kwiilwimi zesiJamani. [4]

Imbali[tshintsha | edit source]

IsiNgesi saaqala eNgilane. Iintlanga zamaJamani (amaSaxons, amaAngles, kunye namaJutes) eeza eBritane malunga phaya ngoo-449 AD. Bafika mazenzela ikhaya emzantsi nasempuma yesi siqithi, bethyalela ngaphandle amaBritane aluhlobo lwamaCeltic ababefike kuqala kunabo, babenza ukuba bathethe ulwimi lwesingesi endaweni yolwimi lwabo lwakudala ulwimi lwesiCeltic.

Unanamhla oku zisekho iilwimi zesiCeltic ezisathethwayo, ingakumbi eWales, apho isiWelsh ilulwimi lokuqala kwinxalenye yabantu abahlala kumaphandle. Inani labantetho isisiGaelic eScotland lincinane, kwaye phantse bonke bakwinaseziqithini. Ulwimi olubizwa ngokuba s"iScots" lona lululwimi oluyinzalelwane yesiNgesi. isiGaelic eIreland nase[Isle of Man]] sithethwa ngabantu abambalwa kakhulu.

Iilwimi ezizalana nesiJamani zezi ntlanga zaba sisiNgesi samandul. Igama elithi English lisuka kwigama likaAngles: uEnglas. IsiNgesi sakudala asivakali njengesiNgesi esisithethayo ngoku. Ukuba abantu abantetho isisiNgesi ngoku bangamamela okanye bafunde umhlathi obhalwe ngesiNgesi sakudala, ambalwa kakhulu amagama abangawaqonda ukuba athetha ukuthini.

Olona lwimi lusondele esiNgesini esisesasetyenziswayo namhlanje sisiFrisian, sithethwa ngabantu abangama-500,000 nabahlala eNetherlands, eGermany naseDenmark. Ngaphezu kokuba olu lwimi lubufana nesiNgesi, abantu abathetha ezi lwimi zimbini abavani kakuhle into abayithethayo. Kodwa nangona kunjalo, abantu abambalwa bathi olona lwimi lusondeleyo esiNgesini lulwimi lwesiDatshi.

Abanye abantu abaninzi beeza eNgilane kamva ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo, bethetha iilwimi ezahlukeneyo, kwaye ezi lwimi zathi zongeza amanye amagama amaninzi kwatsho kwadaleka esi siNgesi sithethwayo kungoku nje.

Nanku umzekelo, kwiminyaka yoo800 AD, amaDanish namaNorse kunye namapirates, nababizwa ngamaVikings, beza kweli lizwe saza isiNgesi samkela amagama emboleko amaNorse amaninzi. Iilwimi zabo zazizezamaJamani, njengesiNgesi samaNdulo.

Emva koloyiso lukaWilliam wayithabathela kuye iNgilane ngo1066 AD kunye nomlhosi wakhe waza wabayikumkani, weza nabantu bakhe abahloniphekileyo, ababentetho yabo isisiNorman, ulwimi olwaluzalana kakhulu nesiFrentshi, ukuba lubekho kurhulumente omtsha. Baasivala isiNgesi ixesha elide ukuba sifundiswe ezikolweni, lwaza ulwimi lwatshintsha kakhulu, kuba sasithethwa ubukhulu becala endaweni yokokuba sibhalwe, isithuba esingangeminyaka engama-300. IsiNgesi saaboleka amagama amaninzi kwisiNorman ngexesha esasinokubizwa ngokuba lulwimi olwahlukileyo, iMiddle English. U-Geoffrey Chaucer ngumbhali owaziwayo wesiNgesi ekuthiwa yiMiddle English. Emva kwezandi ezininzi ezathi zatshintsha, isiNgesi iMiddle English sabasisiNgesi esiphuculweyo. Nangona umsebenzi kaShakespeare ungabonakala umdala kakhulu, kodwa ibizwa ngokuba iphucukile.

Saaqhubela phambili isiNgesi ngokuthatha amagama amatsha kwezinye iilwimi, umzekelo, ingakumbi kwisiFrentshi (malunga nama-30% ukuya kuma-40% amagama aso), kodwa nakwisiTshyayina, isiHindi nesiUrdu, isiJapanese, isiSpanishi kunye nesiPhuthukezi. Kwathi kuba iingcali ezininzi ezazisuka kumazwe ahlukeneyo kwakufuneka zincokole zikwazi ukuthetha omnye komnye, baachonga amagama ezinto ayakuthi asetyenziswe kwezophando kwaye loo magama achongwa kwiilwimi ababezazi bebonke: isiGrike kunye nesiLatini. Laa magama eza nasesiNgesini kananjalo, umzekelo, umfanekiso ofotiweyo ("ifoto-" ithetha "ukukhanya" "kwaye "-igrafu" ithetha "umfanekiso" okanye "umbhalo", kwisiGrike. Umfanekiso ofotiweto ngumfanekiso owenziwe ngokusebenzisa ukukhanya), okanye ifowuni. Lilonke ke, isiNgesi senziwe ngesiNgesi samaNdulo (esizalana kakhulu nesiJamani kunye ne|siDatshi), isiNorse, kunye nesiFrench, kwaye sitshintshwe nasisiLatini, isiGrike, isiTshayina, isiHindi, isiJaphane, kunye nesiPanishi, namanye amagama amaninzi avela kwezinye iilwimi.

Imbali yobuKumkani baseBritane bufake isandla ekwandeni kolwimi lwesiNgesi. Kunamhlanje nje, isingesi lolona lwimi lubaluleke kakhulu kwiindawo ezininzi, ezifana neAustreliya, iKhanada, iHong Kong, kwRhiphabhlikhi yaseIndia nasePakistan, eMzantsi Afrika, nakwizizwe ezimanyeneyo zaseMelika, Isingesi lolona lwimi. Kuba ubuKumkani bezizwe eziManyeneyo (ilizwe apho iNgilane ikhoyo) kunye nezizwe zaseMelika ezimanyeneyo zibe zizizwe ngokwembali ebezisoloko zinamandla ekwenzeni imali naseburhulumenteni, abantu abaninzi babona iluncedo ukufunda isiNgesi ukuze bakwazi ukuthetha kumaziko ezophando, ezoshishino, nakwezozakuzelwano. Esi sifundo ke kuthiwa IsiNgesi njengolwimi olongezelelweyo, isiNgesi ngengolwimi lwesiBini (ESL) okanye isiNgesi njengolwimi oluvela ngaphandle (EFL).

Amabali nemidlalo edumileyo neyaziwa kakhulu. uShakespeare waye engumbhali wemibongo nemidlalo yeqonga yesiNgesi edume kakhulu. Sithetha nje, iingoma kunye nemovie (imiboniso yeefilim)zonke zisebenzisa ulwimi lwesiNgesi.

Umahluko kupelo lwamagama[tshintsha | edit source]

IsiNgesi sisebenzisa upelo magama olungaqhelekanga xa sibhalwa. Izandi zoonobumba kunye nendibaniselwano yazo ibonakala ngathi iyafana kodwa yahluke kakhulu. Nanku umzekelo igama elithi "ough" lahlukile kwelithi through (threw), rough (ruff), dough (doe) okanye cough (coff). Le nto ke yenza okokuba ibe lulwimi olunzima kakhulu ukuba lufundwe.[5] Kumazwe amaninzi abantu abantetho isisiNgesi bawapela ngokwahlukileyo amagama. Kukho umahluko phakathi kopelo-magama lwaseMelika kwelinye icala naseUnited Kingdom kwaye amanye amazwe amaninzi (afana nalawo akwingqungquthela yaseBritane) apho isiNgesi ilolona lwimi lusetyenziswayo kwelinye icala. Ezi ndlela zokupela zahlukeneyo ngamanye amaxesha kuthiwa s"isiNgesi saseMelika ne "siNgesi saseBritane". Umzekelo igama elithi "colour" lipelwa ngolu hlobo "color" eMelika, negama elithi "programme" lipelwa ngolu hlobo "program" eMelika. Negama elithi "spelled" lipelwa ngenye indlela kwisiNgesi saseBritane, apho lipelwa njengo "spelt". Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yokusasazwa kwendlela ekwenziwa ngayo izinto, usasazo (okanye olunwenwela kwihlabathi jikelele), nasekunwenweni kwamasiko aseMelika ngomabonakude nangeenkqubo zeekhompyutha zaseMelika, abanye abemi baseBritane basebenzisa amagama esiNgesi aseMelika.

Intetho[tshintsha | edit source]

Ifuthe elenziwa yintetho yesiNgesi

Phantse ngama-60% entetho yolwimi lwesiNgesi ivela kwisiLatini nakwiilimi zeNeo-Latin (ingakumbi kwisiFrentshi):

  • Langue d'oïl (isiFrentshi): 29.3%
  • isiLatini, siquka isiLatini esiphuculweyo sanamhlanje nekusesophando nobuchwepheshe: 28.7%
  • iilwimi zesiJamani – zithathwe kwisiNgesi samaNdulo, esisuka kwisiJamani samandulo, okanye kumagama asandakubolekwa kulwimi lwesiJamani olufana nelweNorse yamandulo; aluquki magama esiJamani abolekwe kulwimi lwesiRoma, i.e., avela kulwimilwesiJamani in Frentshi, isiLatini okanye ezinye iilwimi zesiroma: ezingama-24%
  • isiGrike: ama-5.32%
  • isiTaliyani, isiPanishi kunye nesiPhuthukezi: 4.03%
  • Ulwimi olusuka kumagama abantu nawezinto zendalo: 3.28%
  • Olusuka kuzo zonke ezinye iilwimi: zingaphantsi kwe-1%

Nangona kunjalo, kwawona magama akhe axhaphaka, awesiJamani ngawona alinani eliphezulu.

  1. Mydans, Seth (14 May 2007) "Across cultures, English is the word" New York Times. Retrieved 21 September 2011
  2. Curtis, Andy. Color, race, and English language teaching: shades of meaning. 2006, page 192.
  3. Baugh, Albert C. & Cable, Thomas 2012. A history of the English language. 6th ed, London: Routledge. ISBN 0-41-565596-X
  4. Comparison between English, German and Dutch (in Italian)
  5. Template:Cite news