Igazi

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Human blood smear:
a – erythrocytes; b – neutrophil;
c – eosinophil; d – lymphocyte.
Human blood fractioned by centrifugation. Plasma (upper layer), buffy coat (middle, white colored layer) and erytrocite layer (bottom) can be seen.
Blood circulation:
Red = oxygenated
Blue = deoxygenated
Human blood magnified 600 times

Igazi lingamanz’ abomvu asemizimbeni yabantu nakwimizimba yezilwanyana. Igazi lityhalwa zizinto ezincinane kakhulu eziphilayo neziqumbene ndawoninye ezikhutshwa yintliziyo, ngeenjongo zokokuba igazi lizise izakha-mzimba kunye nomoya ococekileyo kwizihlunu zemizimba yethu. Ikwaligazi eligutyula konke ukungcola okuvela emzimbeni kunye nomoya ongcolileyo, lowo uvela emzimbeni ngamanye amazwi.[1] =Lenziwe ngantoni igazi=? Igazi lenziwe nge[[blood plasma|ngamanzi atyheli-buphatsha nangawona adibanisa iimbewu zegazi zitsho zikwazi ukuhlala zidibene zisebenzisana ndawonye kunye nezinye iintlobo-ntlobo zeembewu zegazi — iimbewu zegazi ezibomvu, iimbewu zegazi ezimhlophe kunye neembewu zegazi ezimisa ukopha okanye ukumpompoza kwegazi ekuthiwa ziiplatelets. Iiplatelets’’ zinceda ngokunqamla ukopha. Iigazi elinesakhamzimba i-iron eneproteni ifumaneka kwiimbewu zegazi ezibomvu. Iimbewu ezimhlophe apha egazini zona ziluncedo ekulweni nosuleleko zize ziphinde zinyange amanxeba.

Nge-Plasma[tshintsha | edit source]

Iplasma yegazi yinto engamanzi atyheli adada apha egazini. Nayo ke yenziwe ngezakha-mzimba, iityuwa zomzimba ezinyibilikayo, umoya ohlaziya nongcolisa umzimba, amagatya alawula ukusebenza komzimba engasebenzisi ziproteni, ukungcola okungaphakathi emzimbeni, izakhamzimba zendalo ezingamafutha omzimba, kunye neeproteni. Ezi proteni zibaziinqwelo zokuthutha ezinye izakha-mzimba ezincinane kakhulu ngegazi, zibengantibodies| amajoni omzimba (nabizwa ngokuba zii-immunoglobulins), zijongana neziganeko zokwenzeka kwamahlwili, kunye namagatya eeproteni. I-Plasma ayinayo iproteni eyenza amahlwili yiyo le nto kuthiwa xa ibizwa yi-serum kwaye ayinakubalihlwili. Zi-3 iilitha zeplasma ezinokufumaneka kubantu abadala. IPlasma ingamanzi, singathi amanzi akuyo amalunga nama-(90%). Kananjalo iplasma inobunzima begazi obunokude bubengama-55%.

iimbewu ezibomvu egazini[tshintsha | edit source]

Red blood cells

Elinye igama leembewu zibomvu egazini kuthiwa zii-erythrocyte. 'i-Erythro' ithetha ukuthi bomvu; elithi 'cyte' lithetha ukuthi mbewu. Aba nobumba bathi BGM basis ishunqulelo ngolu hlobo ‘’’b’’’omvu ’’’g’’’azi ’’’m’’’bewu.

Imbewu ebomvu egazini ithwala umoya ococekileyo kunye nomoya ongcolileyo ziwusa kuwo wonke umzimba. Iimbewu zemizimba yethu zifuna umoya ococekileyo ukuze siphile. Kwakhona ezi mbewu ziyawenza umoya ongcolileyo sitsho sithi ke kukungcola oko. Imbewu ebomvu egazini izisa umoya ococekileyo othe xaxe kuwo wonke umzimba. Iphinde kwale mbewu, iwuthwale iwukhuphele ngaphandle emzimbeni umoya ongcolileyo.

IiBGM zizaliswe yiiron eneproteni kwimbewu ebomvu yegazi. Ngesingesi ke kuthiwa yihaemoglobin. Singatsho ngelipheleleyo okokuba yiproteni. Yenzelwe ukuba ithwale umoya omninzi ococekileyo iwusasaze kuwo wonke umzimba. Njengoko sele sitshilo, le haemoglobin ine''iron'' kuyo. Xa zizombini ke iiiron kunye nalo moya ucocekileyo ziyitsho ibebomvu le haemoglobin ngombala. Yhiyo le nto igazi silibona libomvu nje. Kukho into ekuthiwa yi''Erythropoietin'' ekuyeyona ikhuthaza ukwenzeka kwale mbewu ibomvu egazini. Uhlobo lwegazi amajoni akhutshwa yinkqubo yangaphakathi emzimbeni ukuba alwe nokuyingozi okungena emzimbeni athwalwa apha kumphezulu wembewu yegazi ebomvu.

IBGM ikwanceda ukuba igazi lihlale likwimo efanelekileyo pH. Kufuneka uze ube uphilile kakuhle ngokwasegazini libe kwizinga le-ph ka 7.4. Ukuba nje likhe langaphezulwana okanye langaneno kuno-7.4, umntu usenokugula kakhulu okanye angade abe uyasweleka. IiBGM zizo ezilawula ipH yegazi. Ibuffer yiyo emisa utshintsho kwipH. Iiproteni kunye nomoya ongcolileyo kwiBGM zimisa utshintsho olwenzeka egazini. Ukuba kuthe kanti awunayo imbewu ebomvu egazini lakho, uyakufa.

Imbewu emhlophe egazini[tshintsha | edit source]

imbewu emhlophe egazini idlala indima enkulu kukhuselo lweentsholongwane emzimbeni. Le mbewu ihlasela yonke into engena emzimbeni ibe ingafanelekanga kungena. Ibulala iintsholongwane ezifana neentsholongwane ezosulelayo kunye nee ntsholongwane ezifana nezefiva, nekagawulayo, njalo, njalo.. Ibulala nembewu yomhlaza. Imbewu emhlophe egazini iluncedo kakhulu kuba ilwa nezinye izinto eziyityhefu emzimbeni.

Le mbewu imhlophe egazini izibhaqa nokokuba ziphi na ezi ntsholongwane apha emzimbeni, emva koko yonde ngazo, zizitshabalalise. IiMGM ziyafika egazini. Ziyakwazi nokuphuma egazini zenjenjeya ukuya kwiindawo apho usuleleko lukhoyo. IiMGM zenza oku ukuze zilwe neentsholongwane ezidala usuleleko. Ukuba ziye zaphumela ngaphandle egazini zisiya kulwa nosuleleko, zisenokuphindela kwigazi elityhutyha-tyhutyha umzimba. Ngoko ke iiMGM zikumajelo egazi elijikeleza emzimbeni.

Elinye igama lembewu emhlophe egazini kuthiwa yileukocyte. U-Leuko uthetha ukuthi ‘mhlophe’. u-cyte uthetha ukuthi ‘cell’. Oonobumba abathi MGM bashunqulela ngolu hlobo ’’’m’’’hlophe ’’’g’’’azi ’’’m’’’bewu. Zintathu ezona ndidi zeMGM. Kukho eze''lymphocytes'', ezegranulocytes kunye nee''monocytes''. Inxalenye yeeMGM zivuthelwa kwiimbewu ezenza umsebenzi ofanayo kwizihlunu zomzimba.

IiMGM zisebenza ngeendlela-ngeendlela. Ezinye zazo zibulala ziphinde zitye iintsholongwane kunye nembewu zentsholongwane yomhlaza. Ezinye zenza amagosa alwa neentsholongwane. Ezi proteni ziiproteni ezincamathela kwezinye iimbewu zize ziyalele ezinye iiMGM ukuba zibulale. Ezinye iiMGM zenza [[chemicals| iikhemikhali. Zithi zikhuphe iikhemikhali eziyakulwa nezinto ezingafanelekanga kuba semzimbeni. Ezi khemikhali zidala ukutsha kwindawo ethile apha emzimbeni. Xa intsholongwane ikugulisa, umzimba uyakubonakalisa oko. Ukuba intsholongwane iziqhusheka ngaphantsi kwesikhumba somntu ize yenze usuleleko, siyajika sibebomvu isikhumba sakhe, sitshise, sibebuhlungu kunjalo nje. Oku kubabomvu kwesikhumba, ukutshisa kwaso, kunye neentlungu, zonke ezi ziimpawu zo inflammation|’’kutsha okanye ukurhawuka’’]]. Oku kubonakalisa okokuba iiMGM zilwa nosuleleko kwaye zibulala intsholongwane.

IiPlatelets[tshintsha | edit source]

IiPlatelets zinceda ekwenzeni amahlwili egazi. [2] Ihlwili kuxa igazi lithi belingamanzi lisuke lijiye. Umzimba wenza ihlwili legazi xa isikhumba esi siye sasikeka. Oku kunqanda ukopha kakhulu ukuze igazi elininzi lingachithekeli ngaphandle.

Kubalulekile okokuba igazi lijiye. Kodwa ngamaxesha athile amahlwili egazi angaba mabi okanye abe neziqhamo ezimbi. Ukuba ukujiya kwegazi kuyenzeka ku[blood vessel|mbhobho wegazi]] apha emzimbeni, kungadala istroke. Ukuba igazi lijiya xa kanye lihamba ngombhobho wegazi oya entliziyweni, oko kungadala isifo sentliziyo. Oku ke akuqhelekanga kubantu abatsha nabanempilo.

IiPlatelets akukuphela kwento eyenza amahlwili. Zikho neeproteni egazini ezenza amahlwili. Iiplatelets kunye clotting proteins|neeproteni zamahlwili]] ziyafuneka ukuze zenze amahlwili alungileyo emzimbeni.

Livelaphi igazi eli?[tshintsha | edit source]

Umboniso wembewu yomongo wethambo ovela kuGray's Anatomy

Imbewu yegazi yenziwa ngumongo wethambo nakw''ispleen''. Umongo yinto ethambileyo ngaphakathi ethanjeni. Bambi ke bade bathi bayahleza, laanto ifunxwayo ke xa kuhlezwa kuthiwa ngumongo. Kukho iimbewu ezikhethekileyo apha kulo mongo, kwaye ubukhulu becala le mbewu yiyo eyenza iimbewu zegazi emzimbeni wakho.

Iiproteni zeplasma zona zenziwa sisibindi. Amanzi kunye neetyuwa ezinyibilikayo kwi-plasma zivela ekutyeni esikutyayo nasemanzini esiwaselayo. Nangona igazi lingamanzi, ngezinye iindlela likwaluhlobo lokunxulumanisa amalungu angaphakathi omzimba. Imbewu yegazi isuka kumongo wethambonakwi''spleen'', kwaye egazini kukwakho nemicu yeenwebu ebalulekileyo eluhlobo lwefibrinogen. Zonke ezi zisebenza xa kusenzeka ihlwili legazi.

Izalathiso[tshintsha | edit source]

  1. The Franklin Institute Inc.. "Blood – The Human Heart". http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/blood/blood.html. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
  2. Platelets are also called 'thrombocytes'.