I-logic

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Igama elithi logic livela kwigama lesiGreek elithi logos. I-logos yona ingathetha isivakalisi, i-discourse, i-reason, i-rule, i-ratio. Ewe kona ezi ntsingiselo azinakunceda ngokwaneleyo ukunika intsingiselo eyiyo yegama elithi 'logic' ngale ndlela lisetyenziswa ngayo kungoku nje.

Ungayichaza uthi yintoni kanye kanye i-logic? Ngokufutshane singathi i-logic sisifundo ngeeprinciples ze-reasoning efanelekileyo okanye eyiyo, nekuthiwa ngokwakwa science yi-correct reasoning. Le nkcazo yeyexeshana nje kuba indlela ekuchazwa ngayo intsingiselo ye-logic ngumcimb'onzima otshis'ibunzi nodala ingxwaba-ngxwaba. kodwa ke, ngenxa yokokuba kufuneka sikwazisile mfundi ngesi sifundo se-logic, sicinga okokuba kubalulekile okokuba sikunike ufifi ngesi sifundo ozakube usifunda. yiloo nto kuphela esizakube siyenza kweli phepha okwangoku. Nje ngoko sele siwuchazile umahluko phakathi kwe-logic reasoning ne-psychology of reasoning phantsi kwesihloko esithi 'ii-principles, ngoku sizakuthetha kuvokotheke ngayo nge-logic neeprinciples zayo.

Ii-principles ze-logic[tshintsha | edit source]

Khawutsho ke, zeziphi ezi principles zereasoning ezenza i-logic? zininzi ii-principles ezi lolu hlobo, kodwa ke eyona nto esiyifundayo (kungeyiyo yodwa) kwi-logic zii-principles ezilawula nezingumkhomba-ndlela obonisa i-validity yeengxoxo (okanye yee-arguments ukuze sikwazi ukubona okokuba ingaba izigqibo ezithile ekuthi kufikelelwe kuzo ziziziphumo zoko bekukukhe kwabekwa ngaphambili njengento enokwenzeka. Umzekelo, khawuqwalasele ezi ngxoxo zintathu zilandelayo:

Ukuba uZola uhlala ezilalini, ke uZola ulihlwempu.
UZola uhlala ezilalini.
Ngoko ke, uZola lihlwempu. 
Ukuba u-K>10, ke u-K>2.
u-K>10.
Ngoko ke, u-K>2. 
Ukuba i-Johannesburg iseRhawutini, ke i-Johannesburg ayikho se-Eastern Cape.
I-Johannesburg ise-Rhawutini. 
Ngoko ke, i-Johannesburg ayikho se-Eastern Cape.

Ezi ngxoxo zintathu sizibonayo apha ngokuqinisekileyo ziingxoxo ezilungileyo kuba kaloku izigqibo ekufikelelwa kuzo ngazo zisekelezelwe zikwalandela ii-assumptions(oko sele kutshiwo ngaphambili). Ukuba ngaba ezi-assumptions ze-argument ngenene zinyanisekile okanye zi-true, nesigqibo se-argument ekufikelelwa kuso si-true. I-logician izakukuxelela okokuba zonke ziyimibandela yaloo argument ekuthiwa yi-modus ponens.