John Langalibalele Dube

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John Langalibalele Dube
John L Dube 001.jpg
John L. Dube Template:Circa
Notable work(s) uShembe Template:In lang (1936) A Biography of Isaiah Shembe, Shuter & Shooter Publishers Pty Ltd, Pietermaritzburg

Template:Apartheid

UJohn Langalibalele Dube (waazalwa ngowe-11 kweyomDumba ngo-1871 – waza wasweleka ngowe-11 kweyomDumba ngo-1946), wayengumbhali wasemZantsi Afrika owayebhala amabali, ekwayingqondi, umfundisi okanye ititshala, ingcali kwezopolitiki, umpapashi, umhleli, umbhali weenoveli, kwanembongi. Waaba ngumyili nomongameli wonkongolo yeeNzalelwane zeSizwe sazemZantsi Afrika (i-SANNC), mbutho lowo owaba owaba yiNkongolo yeSizwe sasemZantsi Afrika ngo-1923. Lo kaDube waasebenza njengoMongameli wale Nkongolo ukusuka ngo-1912 ukuya ku-1917. Waasiwa eMelika ngamamishinari awayeze kuzimasa isikolo sokuqeqesha i-Oberlin.[1] Waabuyela emZantsi Afrika, waza ngo-1903 ekunye nenkosikazi yakhe yokuqala, uNokutela Dube, bayila iphepha-ndaba, nelibizwa ngokuba l'Ilanga lase Natal.

Ngo-1901, waaqala iziko leendibano zamantombazana eNanda e-Ohlanga. Wayesoloko ethundeza abantu abamnyama ukuba bashishine, watsho yena ngo-1903 waqala iphepha-ndaba lalke ngolwimi lwesiZulu nelibizwa, isihloko salo sithi 'Ilanga'. Ngo-1930, uJohn Dube waapapasha "Umzimba wesiCaka sikaShaka." Wayekwabhala ngobomi beenkokheli zakwaZulu, eziquka ukumkani uDinizulu.

Wayengumntu oqhuba iingxoxo ngezopolitiko. I-ANC yakhe yayingombutho olwayo ngeminyaka yoo-1960s, kodwa akazange alahlekelwe yile mibandela mibini ilandelayo: Okokuqala, amalungelo abantu, okwesibini, ukubaluleka kokumanyana kwama-Afrika. Lo ngumyalezo awayewushumayela imihla yonke yokudla kwakhe ubomi, de wasutywa kukufa ngo-1946.

Ebuntwaneni bakhe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UJohn Langalibalele waazalelwa eNatala kwisitishi semishini yaseNanda esikwa yimishini yobambiswano phakathi kweMelika noZulu(Meli-ZulAZM), isebe leBhodi yekomiti yaseMelika elimele iimishini zamanye amazwe, ikwaleli sebe elathi kamva lamanya iimishini zeenkonzo zomZantsi Afrika kunye noozakwabo yimishini yeecawa zenkongolo yeNtlangano yeemishini zaseLondon kwaye iManyano yenkongolo yomzantsi Afrika ukwakha Icawe yasemZantsi Afrika yenkongolo emanyeneyo (UCCSA). Uyise owayengumfundisi uJames Dube, wayengomnye wabefundisi bokuqala ukugcotywa nje ngomfundisi ongumAfrika we-AZM. UDube waqala ukufunda eNanda nakwiKholeji iAdams College, eManzimtoti.

Umfundisi uWilliam Cullen Wilcox waabizwa ukuba aze kuthetha noDube, owayehlupha kwisikolo saseAdams. ngelo xesha uyise uJames Dube wayengumfundisi webandla laseNanda. [2]

ngo-1887, usapho lwakwaWilcox lwaluphindela eMelika, waza uJohn Dube ekunye nonina bathi gqolo becenga esi sibini samamishinari ukuba bahambe kunye naye uDube xa besiya eMelika, apho wayezakuqhubela phambili nezifundo zakhe. Saavuma ke esi sibini ngelithi bangahamba naye, ngaphandle kokuba uzakuzihlawulela iimfuno zakhe zemihla-ngemihla. Kodwa ke baamcebisa, waza wathi akufika eMelika uDube, uWilliam wamfumanela umsebenzi wasemgaqweni.[2]

DUDube waaya kufunda kwisikolo soqeqesho lokuqala i-Oberlinl[1] nangona waafunda ukuchwetheza nokuzinceda, akazange ade abe uwongwa ngempumelelo kwelo nqanaba.[2]

UDube wayengumntwanegazi, ngokwelungelo lakhe, eyinkosi yohlanga lwamaQadi. Kwathi kuba uyise wayesele eguqulelwe kubuKrestu ngamamishinari okuqala phambi kokuba kubekhoiRiphabhlikhi yasemZantsi Afrika, zange awalawule amaQadi. Eyona fani kaDube nguNgcobo, owayenobukhosi bamaQadi akwaZulu.

Igalelo lakhe kwisizwe[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Igqiza labathunywa lombutho wenkongolo yabantu bemveli basemZantsi Afrika elalithunye eNgilane, ngenyanga yeSilimela ngo-1914. ukusuka ekhohlo ukuya ngasekunene: uThomas Mapike, umFundidi Walter Rubusana, umFundisi uRev John Dube, uSaul Msane, uSol Plaatje

Kumntu owayenomfutho wemfundo yobumishinari, kwakukho ungquzulwano phakathi kwale mfundo yaseNtshona intsha ifikayo kunye nendlela ekwakuhlalwa kuphilwa ngayo ngokwemveli yamaAfrika. Kodwa yena uDube waakwazi ukuyithatha le yantlukwano ngokwasekuhlaleni esebenzisa amava akhe nanje ngendoda eyayithembekile kuluntu lwasekuhlaleni, njengokuba kwiminyaka elandelayo, waathi wathenjwa yindlu yobukhosi bamaZulu. Sekuyinto eyamkelekileyo umbono othi lo kaDube ngewayengazange abe lilungu leSANC, kodwa ngenxa yokokuba iimfundiso kunye neencoko zakhe ngokubaluleka komanyano zangena nokungena komfutho wezopolitiko. Namhlanje kubonakala kufanelekile kwiingcali zembali ezinomkhethe ukukhankanya okokuba ukunesa kwakhe le mfundo intsha umfo kaDube bubungqina obathi bakhokelela ekubeni athi kamva ohlukane ne-ANC. Kodwa, eyona nyaniso yeyokokuba, i-ANC yayingazange ibe ngumbutho wamatsha-ntliziyo awayelwela imibandela efana nelungelo lokuvota kwenzalelwane zemveli ezingabantu abadala de kwenziwa utshintsho olukhawulezileyo ngokuthi kuqalwe okanye kuyilwe umbutho wolutsha oyiANC Youth League ngeminyaka yoo-1940.

Iintetho zikaDube njengomongameli wombutho wezopolitiko lwabantu abamnyama azizange zibhengezwe, ngoko ke azizange zibenakufumaneka. Omnye umbutho wabantu abamnyama owathi wakhiwa njengombutho wentsebenziswano kwezentlalo nopolitiko neNtlangano kaMarcus Garvey engophuculo lwabantu abangama-Negro negqiza lazizwe zamaAfrika, eyafunyanwa ngo-1914. Kwiintshukumo zakhe zopolitiko okaDube wayehlaba ekhangele kwaye engagxeki kwaphela, kodwa ephuma elubala ngamalungelo abantu abamnyama nangokubaluleka komanyano - wayibona imfuneko yokumanyana kwabantu abamnyama kude le, phambi kokuba kufike uGarvey kweli lizwe.

Umfundisi/ititshala[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Phakathi kwiminyaka yoo-1930 uJohn kunye nenkosikazi yakhe yesibini uAngelina Dube ekunye (ukusuka ekhohlo ukuya ngasekunene) nonoNomagugu, uJoan Lulu, uJames Sipho kunye noDouglas Sobanto.

UDube wayekwayititshala, isithethi esibalulekileyo kwisekethe eyayifakana imilomo nabelungu kwiindibano ekwakusothulwa kuzo iintetho kwisizwe jikelele. Ngo-1901 yena kunye nenkosikazi yakhe yokuqala, uNokutela Dube, baqala isikolo soshishino samaZulu angamaKrestu, nesaziwa nje ngesiKolo semfundo ephakamileyo i-Ohlange kwase-Ohlange, kufuphi nasePhoenix kunye nasEkuPhakameni.[2] Eli yayiliziko lemfundo lokuqala emZantsi Afrika ukuqalwa ngabantu abamnyama. [3] Wayezinika imfundiso zakhe ngokumenywa waza ke ngenxa yoko wawongwa ngesidanga sobugqirha kwifilosofi (kwezolwazi nobulumko). Igalelo lakhe njengetitshala alibhalwanga ngokwaneleyo, kodwa ubenayo ekwayibeka imibono yakhe ngemfundo nesiko emayisetyenziswe kwiindlela eziyingozi zorhulumente wengcinezelo xa athe waluthathelakuye ulawulo ngo-1948 efaka umthetho weBantu Education Act. UDube wayebone kuyimfuneko ukudibanisa imfundo yaseNtshona kunye namasiko nezithethe zalapha ekuhlaleni, kodwa konke kwakhelwe ngendlela ekuphilwa nekwenziwa ngayo izinto ngama-Afrika. Imibono yakhe ngemfundo ifunyanwa kwi-Ukuziphatha kunye ne-Isita.

Indoda eyayibhala iileta[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Uphakathi kwamadoda ayeziintloli zokuqala ezaabhala iileta ezadlala indima enkulu ukuze kufunyanwe uncwadi lwesiZulu. Wayengomnye wabapapashi nababhali besiZulu bokuqala, nangona incwadi yokuqala ukupapashwa yayibhalwe nguMagema Magwaza Fuze, ombali yakhe ngamaZulu ithi, Abantu abamnyama lapo bavela ngakona (eguqulelwa esiXhoseni ngolu hlobo,"Abantu abamnyama nalapho bavela khona"), yaapapashwa ngo-1922, kodwa yayibhalwe ngeminyaka yoo-1880 nasekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo-1890s. Umsebenzi wokuqala owapapashwa nguDube kwakusisincoko esasibhalwe ngolwimi lwesiNgesi sincoko eso esasingokuziphucula nokubanesidima.Esi sincoko saapapashwa ngo-1910. Umsebenzi owakhokelela ekubeni makabe uwongwa ngesidanga sobugqirha befilosofi sisincoko esasisihloko sayo sithiUmuntu Isita Sake Uqobo Lwake ("Utshaba lomntu nguye yena qobo lwakhe") ibhalwe ngakutsha ngo-(1992)(uhlobo lwakudala lokubhala ngolwimi lwesiZulu phambi ko-1936). Waaqhubela phambili epapasha ineveli engembali ekwacaca okokuba iyathandwa kwaye inefuthe kwingqokolela yokubhalwe ngesiZulu phantsi kwesihloko esithiInsila kaShaka ("isicaka somzimba kaShaka") ngo(1930). UDube wayekwazinikele kumsebenzi wokubhala ngobomi beentsapho zeenkosi zamaZulu, ingakumbi iintsapho zeNkumkani uDinizulu, owaba ngumntu wokuqalwa ukubhalwa kwemvelaphi yakhe kwimbali yamaAfrika. Kukwakho neqela lemisebenzi engenafuthe nengabalulekanga kangako ngokomgangatho, imisebenzi efana nesincokoUkuziphatha [esingokuziphatha komntu] ngo(1910).

Ngaphezu koko, uDube nenkosikazi yakhe bavula iphephandaba lokuqala elalibhalwe ngesiZulu/nangesiNgesi[4] Ilanga laseNatali ngo-1903, olu papasho lwathi lwenzelwa umsitho womnyhadala kuvuyiswana nalo ngo-2003. Ilanga laseNatali alisazimelanga okoko lathi lathengwa ngumbutho wezopolitiko owawubizwa ngokuba yInkatha yeNkululelo yeSizwe ngo-1988, owawukhokhelwa nguMangosuthu Buthelezi, waza wathi kamva waba ngumbutho wezopolitiko emva korhulumente wengcinezelo emZantsi Afrika wabizwa ngokuba yInkatha Freedom Party (IFP). UDube waabhala waza wahlela izihlandlo ngezihlandlo kweli phepha nakwamanye awayenababhali amagama abo angowobuxoki. Wayesakupapasha namanye kwimibongo. Waafundisa iintatheli ezathi kamva zaqhubela phambili zabangabahleli kwiphepha lakhe banika inkxaso ekuqaqambiseni nasekuphuhliseni imbali noncwadi lwesiZulu.

UDube nenkosikazi yakhe yokuqala, uNokutela Dube, banconywa ngokwenza iculo likaEnoch Sontonga edumileyo ethi "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika".[4] eli culo laathi kamva laba ngumhobe weSizwe emva kokuba ikwayala yeziko lemfundo ephakamileyo i-Ohlange iziko leMfundo ithe yalicula. Balicula kwindibano yombutho kaKhongolose wabantu beMveli beSizwekazi i-Afrika ngo-1912. Eli culo laaculwa emva komthandazo wokuvala, yaza i-ANC yamisa okokuba libe ngumhobe wokuvala ngokusesikweni ngo-1925. 1925.[5]

Ukufuthwa kwakhe nguBooker T. Washington[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

UDube waliva ngokwakhe ifuthe lika likaBooker T. Washington xa wayehambele e-USA esiyakwandisa imfundo yakhe ekuqaleni phaya kwiminyaka yoo-1890. Yena ekunye nenkosikazi yakhe baqala isikolo semfundo ephakamileyo i-Ohlange ngo-1901, esi sisikolo esasenzelwe ukuba sifundise aBantu basetyhini ngendlela zempucuko ukuze bakhululeke baze bafumane indawo kwisizwe esiphucukileyo. Kwisincoko sakhe esithi Ukuziphatha uDube waaqaphela okokuba abantu basetyhini abamnyama ngabona babuthathaka ekuphuhliseni intlalo yabantu bemveli ngenxa yemiqathango nokuncitshiswa kwamathuba abo okuba bafunde, waza waqaphela okokuba impumelelo nokuqaqamba kwabantu basetyhini kuvutha kuphele okomlilo weendiza. Eyona nto eyaba nefuthe kwimpumelelo kaDube yaba kukufunda kwakhe incwadi yaseWashington esihloko sayo sithi Up From Slavery, incwadi engokuzithemba, ivangeli eyayishunyayelwa ngokwesiko laseMelika nguRalph Waldo Emerson. Le ncwadi yaabonakalisa ukuba nefuthe elingummangaliso kwiingcinga zaBantu bemveli kwilizwe i-Afrika, nakuye wonke umntu omnyama ehlabathini jikelele. Yahamba yahamba yaguqulelwa nakwezinye iilwimi zaBantu abamnyama emZantsi Afrika, kodwa uDube akazange ayiguqulele nakoluphi na ulwimi, ndaweni yoko, wasuka wathatha iimfundiso zayo wazifaka ukuba zenziwe njengoba zinjalo. Obu bubuchule nenkqubela engazange yenziwa ngomnye umntu, ngaphandle koGarvey nemigushuzo yakhe eyayingathi ayinto kangako kodwa ibalulekile kusopolitiki uSteve Biko ekwikhaya lakhe eQonce kwiphondo laseMpuma-Koloni. UDube wayethanda kakhulu liziko lase Washington iTuskegee; kwiminyaka emva koko, uMarcus Garvey waazama ukubona i-Washington kuba yabanomtsalane ofana nokaDube nakuye, ngangona yena waafika eMelika ngo-1916, yayise ifile ke yona iWashington kumnyaka ogqithileyo. Isikolo sikaDube sisasebenza nangoku. UDube wayelikholwa elingagungqiyo ekuzithembeni, ekuziphatheni nangokunxanelwa ukomoya wokuqonda ukuba nesidima nentlonipho emehlweni abantu. KwIsita ushumayela ukuzimela nemfuneko yokuba abantu abamnyama baziqalele amathuba ezoqoqosho ukuze bahlonitshwe lihlabathi.

Impumelelo yombutho kaNokutela noJohn Dube yayingenakwayanyaniswa nomtshato wabo. Bathi kona bakungabi nabantwana kwabonwa njengento embi kuNokutela, waza uJohn wanguyise wosana lwabo bantwana babo. Kwavulwa ikomiti yokuphanda uJohn, kodwa zange enziwe nto waza uNokutela waziva enukunezwe ngokomphefumlo. [6] Esi sibini soohlukana phakathi ngo-1914, waza Nokutela wafudukela kwiPhondo laseTransvaal wahlala apho ke de wafikelwa kukugula sisifo sezintso. Wabuyela wayakuhlala noJohn Dube eRhawutini, waza wasweleka ngo-1917 enama-44 eminyaka ubudala. Abantu ababezimase umngwabo wakhe yayinguPixley uka  uIsaka uSeme namanye amalungu aphambili ento eyayizakuba yi-African National Congress.[7]

Imisebenzi olusekwe phezu kwalo eli phepha[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "John Dube", Oberlin.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "UJohn L. Dube – A Biographical Sketch", Oberlin College. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  3. Simanga Kumalo; Neville Richardson (2010), "Seth Mokitimi and education for ministry: What's in a Name?", Template:Dead linkTemplate:Cbignore Missionalia, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 259–274.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Martin Vennard (13 June 2014). "The pioneering woman the world forgot". BBC News. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-27702630. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  5. "Enoch Mankayti Sontonga", SAHistory.org.za. Retrieved July 2013.
  6. Hughes, Heather (2011) First president : a life of John Dube, founding president of the ANC Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana Media p. 189 ISBN 978-1770098138 retrieved 15 June 2014 
  7. Nokutela Dube, Johannesburg City Parks. Retrieved 14 June 2014.

Uxhumano lwangaphandle[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

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