Isakhono nge-Statistics

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 Isakhono sokuhlalutya ubungqina bophando obubonakaliswa ngamanani (I-statistical literacy) siyenye indlela yokuqonda ebandakanya uhlobo lokubala ekuthiwa si-statistics, ukuze ngalo olu hlobo kuhlalutywe ubungqina obuqokolelweyo (obaziwa ngokuba yi-data). Xa kusetyenziswa esi sakhono sokuhlalutya esenziwa ngamanani, ubungqina obuqokolelweyo buyaxovulwa ukuze kuzathuzwe  ngabo, de kuziwe neziphumo zophando eziphume kobo bungqina bunikiweyo (obuyi-data).  Esi sakhono sokuqonda nokuzathuza ngamanani kubungqina obunikiweyo (obuyi-data), okanye iingxoxo ekuphicothwa ngazo ngokuthi kusetyenziswe kwa obu bungqina, zibalulekile kubahlali ukuze bakuqonde okuqulethwe kwizipapashi ezinje ngamaphepandaba, koomabonakude, nakwi-internet. Kodwa ke kukwafuneka okokuba iingcali zisiphuhlise esi sakhono sokubala ngeenjongo zokuhlalutya ubungqina  (obusi-statistical literacy), ukuze zithi zombini, (olu hlobo lokubala kunye nobungqina) zivelise uphando oluluqilima noluyakuphinde lukwazi ukuzala olunye uphando oluziphumo zalo ziyakuba luncedo kwakuzo iingcali, kuba ziyakuphinda zisisebenzise isiphumo solo phando. Ukubala kukwasisakhono soku kubala ngohlobo lwe-statistics. kwezinye iindlela zoku kubala, singathi xa kubalwa ngokwe-statistical, kusetyenziswa ubungqina obufumaneka kwi-population (loo nto kuphandwa kuyo) kulapho kufunyanwa khona obu bungqina, (Umzekelo, ngabafundi abasaqalayo ukuya kubafundi bebanga le-12 okanye ke singathi ukuya kwabo bagqibezela inqanaba le-sekondari okanye abakwinqanaba lokugqibela kwimfundo esisiseko), esi sesona sakhono sokuqala ekufuneka unaso  xa usenza uphando. Xa unesi sakhono, uthathwa njengomntu okwaziyo ukuhlalutya, ukwenza oku ngokuhlaba amadlala, ugxeke uncoma obu bungqina. Lilonke, ubuhla amahlongwane phezulu obu bungqina. Yonke loo nto uyenza usebenzisa i-statistics, ukwancoma indima entle edlalwa kukubandakanywa kwe-statistics kuyo yonke imiba yobomi jikelele okanye ukuhlolwa, uyilo, kwaye/okanye imveliso zobunzululwazi umsebenzi.

Ukukhuthaza isakhono sokubala ngokwe-statistics[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

Abantu basoloko behlohlwa ngobungqina be-statistics kupapasho olwenziwa mihla le (uyakusoloko usiva kusithiwa "koogqirha bamazinyo aba-5 ba-4 abancomayo), kwiingxelo ezenziwa ngeendaba ("uluvo lwabantu lubonisa okokuba isithunywa okanye umgqatswa ukhokhele ngamanqaku amane"), kanti kuyenzeka oku nakwiingxo zemihla ngemihla ("Ubukhulu becala andiyazi eyonanto uthetha ngayo"). Ingcali  ezingoompondo zihlanjiwe kunye namagqwetha aphum'izandla, asoloko esebenzisa ukubala xa zizathuza ngeenjongo zokutyebisa ubungqina obuthiwa thaca kwiingxoxo zasemthethweni.  Kulapho ke sibaluncedo khona esi statistics. ikwa sesi sakhono se-statistics esinceda umntu ukuba azi okokuba lo mpondo zihlanjiwe uthetha ukuthini na andule ukwenza isigqibo ngento ayaziyo, atsho azi okokuba makholelwe liphi na igqwetha lomthetho. Kubaluleke kakhulu ke oku, kuba kaloku i-statistics sisenokwenziwa ukuba sivelise ubungqina obuhlalutye engeyiyo le ifunekayo, kunjalo nje kungade kucingwe okokuba olu hlalutyo lusemgangathwei okanye lufanelekile. Injongo yokuphakanyiswa kwesakhono kwistatistics (i-statistical literacy) kukuphucula indlela aziwa ngayo amanani neempawu zamanani luluntu jikelele.    

Izigqibo ngezempilo zisoloko zibonakala njengeengxaki ezisekwe kwizigqibo ezithathwe ngokwe-statistics, kodwa bambalwa oogqirha okanye izigulana ezixhotyiswe ngezakhono zesi-statistics, ukuze nabo bakwazi ukuthatha inxaxheba kubungqina (kwi-data) obukhoyo. Cite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name

Iziphumo zophando ngezimvo zabantu zikwakhankanywa nakwimibutho yeendaba, kodwa ukusulungeka nomgangatho wophando olunje ngolu kuyahluka nje geqe. Kangangokuba, olunye uhlobo ekuqondwa ngalo ukusebenza kwe-statistics kwimizekelo yezinto ezicatshulwe kuloo nto iphandwayo ukuze kwenziwe kuzo uphando.   (ezo zinto ke zimele ezinye kuphando kuthiwa ziyi-sampling). Zifuneka kakhulu ke  ukuze kulungiswe ezo ziphumo zithe azahlalutyeka ngendlela eyiyo.  Kananjalo, ezi sample zisenokuba ncinane kakhulu kangangokuba iziphumo zophando eziphuma kuzo azinakuba nantsingiselo iyiyo, kananjalo kwa ukukhethwa kwazo kunenzelwa ebuqhingeni.  Indlela le abekwe ngayo amagama kwiphepha eliqulethe imibuzo yophando angabekwa ngendlela enegobe, angasetyenziswa enjalo kanye xa injongo ikukufumana iziphumo zobuqhinga. Uphando olufanelekileyo lolo lusebenzisa indlela ezingenabuqhophololo, apho ke ixesha elininzi neenzame lichithwa ekuqhulunqeni imibuzo kwaneendlela zokuphanda ezizizo. Ubuchule be-statistics buyimfuneko ukuze kuqondwe okokuba yintoni na kanye le yenza ukuba uphando luthembeke, kwaye umntu akwazi ukulibeka esikalini ixabiso  leziphumo zophando kunye nezigqibo ezithathwe kwezo ziphumo.  

Ngenxa yezi zizathu, kunye nezinye ezingakhankanywanga apha, kuye kwayilwa iinkqubo ezininzi ukuze kuphuculwe isakhona sokusebenzisa i-statistics (i-statistics literacy) kwihlabathi jikelele. Umzekelo, Amaziko e-statistics aseburhulumenteni afana ne-Statistics saseKhanada kunye ne-Statistics esilawulwa ngurhulumente wase-Australia, bonke aba rhulumente baneenkqubo zokufundisa abafundi ezikolweni ngendlela esisebenza ngayo i-statistics. Kukho iziko leprojekthi elijongene nokufundisa nge-statistics kula mazwe mabini. Eli ziko likukuphela kombutho oquka laa mazwe mabini, onjongo yalo ikukuphakamisa iinkqubo zala mazwe eziyakuthi ziqhubele phambili ukwandisa ukufundwa kwe-statistics ngawo onke amalungu asekuhlaleni. Izixhobo eziliqela kunye nezinto ezenziwayo, kuquka neengcaphephe zala mazwe mabini zimaxhaphetshu zizama ukugcina eli phulo liyimpumelelo kuwo onke amazwekazi eli hlabathi. Ikomishini yezizwe ezimanyeneyo kuqoqosho lwelizwekazi laseYurophu, ize nombono wokuqala izifundo ezingesakhono se-stastistics, zifundo ezo eziyakuqalisa kwibanga lesi-2 (u-grade 4), ukuze kwenziwe naluphi na ulwazi ngaloo nto kufundwa ngayo ibe lulwazi oluphathekayo.

IIndlela zokufunda ngesi sakhono se-statistics[tshintsha | Yenza izilungiso kokubhaliweyo]

IIi-experiments ezeziwa kwi-sciences, iindlela zoshishino kunye neengxelo ezenziwayo, zonke zisebenzisa i-statistics. Abantu abathe bangenazulu kwezi zifundo, bafunde ngentsingiselo yezibalo ezingestatistics, ezifana nomyinge (i-avarage) kunye ne-standard deviation. Iikholeji ezininzi kunye neeYunivesithi zifuna kubekho isifundo sokuqala esingenisa abafundi kwi-statistics, kwaye esi sifundo siyakuba yinxalenye yenkqubo yokunyusa izinga lemfundo yomntu ngokwemfundo nangokwekamva lakhe. 

Ulwazi lwentelekelelo lunganegalelo ekuqondeni okanye athi kanti umntu uluqonda ngenye indlela ekungeyiyo le ifanelekileyo, kathi ke olu lwazi lukwasetyenziswa ukuluxovula ngengxoxo-mpikiswano.  .Cite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name

Izifundo zophando zibonisa okokuba ukuqikelela kwabantu ngezinto abacinga okokuba zisenokuba njalo, zifuthwa kakhulu ziimeko ezenzeka phantsi kwazo kwakunye namazwi oluthe lwabekwa ngawo olo lwazi luphandiweyo. Ukuqiqa ngokwe-statistics kusenokuba nzima ukuba kukhuliswe kukwanzima okokuba kucokiswe, kwaye oku kukhokhelela ekubeni olu hlobo lokuqiqa luthathwe njenohlobo olungekho ngqondweni.  .

Ukugembula yenye yeendlela ezikhoyo ekubhenelwa kuzo, apho ke kuye kube yilahleko enkulu xa kungasetyenziswanga uhlobo lokubala lwestatistics Umbono okanye ithiyori elula yokuqikelela inceda umntu ukuze akwazi ukuqikelela okanye akwazi ukubala okubandakanywe kolu qikelelo lukwimidlalo yokugembula. Kodwa uninzi lwabantu  luyasilela ukwenza olu qikelelo, umzekelo, uqikelelo lokuqubisana nendlu ephelelyo, kumdlalo wamakhadi owaziwa ngokuba yi-porker. Ukungaqondi ezi ntlobo zokuqikelela kwenza okokuba umntu afunisele  ngokugqithisileyo okanye abuye nganeno ekufuniseleni kwakhe, kunaxa bebenokwazi nokokuba ke kukuqikelela oko kufanelekileyo. Ukwandisa ulwazi nesakhono somntu kwi-statistics, ukuze akwazi ukufunisela ngokufanelekileyo, oko ekufunds kumagumbi okufundela okanye eklasini, kwincwadi zokufundisa ezinemizekelo ye-statistics, kwakunye nezinye iindlela, ezinokukhokelela ekubeni abemi beli lizwe babenolwazi oluthe chatha, nto leyo eyakwenza okokuba batsho bakwazi ukwenza izigqibo ezisekelwe phezu kolwazi, okanye ngaphandle kolwazi olufanelekileyo.   

Inkcazelo malunga nesakhono nge-statistics kunye neengcinga ngayo yinto ebisoloko ichazwa ngeendle-ngeendlela. Phambi komnyaka ka-1940, ezinye izakhono ze-statistics zaye zagqithiselwa kwizifundo zenzululwazi. Ukanti inxalenye yezakhono ze-statistics zaye zafundiswa kumabanga esikolo, "Ngoko ke inqanaba lesakhono se-statistics liyakubekwa kwihlabathi jikelele kwixa elizayo ...".Cite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name. Kutsha nje, bekulindwe lukhulu.   "Isakhono se-statistics lulwazi ngezibalo ze-statistics, athi enalo nje umntu, abe ekwathi nokuhlalutya iziphumo zalo eziyakuthi zichaphazele iimpilo zethu.  Imvelaphi yezo ziphumo ze-statistics, idla ngokukwiindlela eziye zasetyenziswa ezithi zifikelele kwiincwadi ze-statistics ezisetyenziswa kwiikholeji ngoo-1940. I-statistics siqhubela phambili ngokuxhobisa abantu ngolwazi. Ukungabikho kwesakhono se-statistics bekusoloko kugxekwa phantsi kwezihloko ezininzi. Cite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad nameCite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name H. G. UWels ebesoloko ecatshulwa kwiintetho zakhe esithi Ngenye imini, ulwazi nge-statistics luyakuze lubaluleke kanye njengokubaluleka kokufunda nokubhala.Cite error: The opening <ref> tag is malformed or has a bad name kodwa ke usenokuba ubhekisa kulwazi olunxulumene nezibalo zepolitiki endaweni yezibalo zangoku. 

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